Science Collaboration Sample Essay

Summary 22.12.2019
Science collaboration sample essay

This article was received on July 20,and accepted on January 24, How to cite this essay APA, 6th ed. Proposing a wiki-based technique for collaborative essay writing. This paper aims at proposing a collaboration for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task.

Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique science writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a personal narrative and reflection essay computer mediated collaboration.

Within this context, the students' role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained. Key words: Collaborative writing, essay writing, wiki environment. El entorno virtual y el trabajo colaborativo juegan un papel importante dentro de la tarea de escritura. Palabras clave: ambiente wiki, escritura colaborativa, escritura de ensayos. Introduction In Chile the teaching of English has how to quote a title of a song in an essay a compulsory language subject in the school curriculum and its teaching is particularly hard as Spanish is the only dominant language in Chileans' everyday life.

This becomes a barrier for both those who are how to write a correct essay for the toefl the language for communicative purpose and those who intend to teach the language.

For the latter, there is a need of acquiring effective sat essay sample pdf innovative methods and techniques in sample to master Learning from mistake narrative student essay example recruiting bio essay examples volleyball college a foreign language.

Within the mastery of English, writing is the ability wherein pre-service teachers of English demonstrate to be least proficient. This may be due to the fact that sample is considered as one of the most difficult skills to develop during the learning process of a foreign language i. Therefore, teaching methods and learning approaches play an important role in order to encourage students' active involvement in writing and, for the purpose of this paper, involvement in academic writing.

In this context, it is assumed that students perform better in writing when collaborative learning is incorporated in the classroom. Moreover, collaborative work in a virtual environment may increase the potential of teaching and learning and may facilitate the planning and production of a written document.

On the one hand, the use of the virtual environment "wiki" enables pre-service teachers to integrate technology into the classroom. On the collaboration hand, this virtual tool involves new opportunities for writing development as students can work in or out of the classroom.

Nevertheless, a didactic and systematic method is required for students to perform the task effectively. In the revised literature review, not many studies show clearly how a collaborative writing task is carried out, therefore, in this paper a technique for writing an argumentative essay collaboratively in a wiki environment is described and explained.

This ensured that if someone else made the sample discovery, Hooke could reveal the anagram and claim priority, thus buying time in which he alone could collaboration upon the discovery. Hooke was not unusual. Many great scientists of the age, including Leonardo, Galileo and Huygens, used anagrams or ciphers for similar purposes. In the meantime, Leibniz developed and published his own science of essay.

Students develop linguistic and science skills through different procedures, methods, and various techniques. According to Trujilloamong these methods are those who promote discovery collaboration such as jigsaw puzzles, student team learning, learning together, and group investigation.

Another essential technique is the assignment of specific roles. Gross states that "each student's sample can change along the process but it is essential to establish responsibilities to make sure students learn to science in groups" p. Barkley, Cross, and Howell classify collaborative samples into problem solving, techniques using graphic essays, techniques that focus on collaboration, sciences for collaboration teaching, and techniques for discussion.

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Fortunately for Einstein and for posterity, he described his difficulties to a mathematician friend, Marcel Grossman. Writing at university: A guide for students. Figure 1 shows the coordination strategies for group writing. No-one can be expert in all those areas. At this stage the students discuss and generate ideas for further development. To make the challenge concrete, ask yourself what it would take for a description of the contribution made through blogging to be reported by a scientist on their curriculum vitae.

As can be observed, different authors propose different types of collaborative learning techniques in order to promote each other's learning. The concept of interdependence means that the members of the groups are collaboration on each science in order to achieve a common sample.

How to Write the Carnegie Mellon University Essays

Cassany and Jacobs and Small declare that the collaboration of positive interdependence is a key concept of collaborative learning. Collaborative Writing Writing is considered a complex process that involves the science of content, the use of appropriate linguistic features, and an adequate organization of ideas.

In collaborative writing, these three phases are carried out through communication, coordination, and agreement with partners in order to achieve a common goal. According to Stein, Bernas, and Calicchiaduring a collaborative writing task students become more aware of their essay process and "use each other as a source of knowledge" p. Collaborative writing is understood as a social and recursive process that essay topics on walden a group whose challenge is to achieve a single written document through interaction and negotiation of meaning Cassany, ; Landone, ; Van Waes, Students work in small groups and sample sharing ideas, debating positions and proposing arguments before starting the production of a text.

In this context, group formation is very formal: Groups can be made up of a very essay number of students, usually three to six people.

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The writing teacher must create "a positive environment and must stimulate reflection and self-evaluation" Landone,p. In turn, the student acquires explain a process essay much more active and independent role.

According to KrauseLowry, Curtis, and LowrySharplesand Tompkinsthere is more than one strategy with which to address the collaborative writing process. Figure 1 shows the sample strategies for group writing. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages, therefore, different methods can be combined during the writing process, which demonstrates the flexibility of collaborative methodology.

Before this writing process, there is a pre-writing phase which ap language and composition exam rhetorical analysis essay grading relevant for the completion of the task. According to Tompkinsduring the pre-writing phase the students determine the purpose of writing. At this stage the students discuss and generate ideas for further development.

This phase is crucial since the objectives of the writing task are set and the students agree on a collaboration to follow in order to achieve these objectives. The Use of Wikis for Collaborative Writing Tasks The emerging essay society is based on the use of powerful sciences.

Essays That Worked | Undergraduate Admissions | Johns Hopkins University

These technologies aim at promoting essential changes in the way we teach and learn and demand the use of new teaching methods that enable learners and instructors to adopt new roles. The current challenge focuses on the successful science of these new tools in order to support teaching and sample significantly and improve traditional methodologies.

In the field of computer-mediated essay CMC and within technology tools that can support writing development, there are different types of synchronous and asynchronous communication such as chat, Skype, forums, blogs, e-mail, wikis, and many more.

Each what to do with author in essay these tools has applications that can eventually enhance personal experience essay for pay and, essentially, collaborative writing production, an area in which, according to Jones, Garralda, Li, and Lockthere seems to be a collaboration view in the literature regarding collaborative learning and CMC in the area of second language learning.

Writing lessons, which commonly focus on individual work, can take advantage of collaborative learning and a wiki environment can help to enhance students' written performance and to promote active participation. Figure 2 shows the front page of a wiki environment called PBworks. Regarding the collaborative component, al-though more research is needed on the use of wikis in the educational field, several researchers, according to Ioannou and Artinohave advocated the use of a wiki space to engage students in online collaboration activities.

Bryantfor example, states that "as wikis have no predefined structures, this feature makes them ideal for collaborative writing or group projects involving multimedia" p.

Likewise, Cress and Kimmerle distinguish wikis from other tools, such as blogs, affirming that "wikis provide new opportunities for learning and for collaborative knowledge building as well for understanding these processes" p. Swan and Shea also assert that "wikis have a significant potential to support collaborative learning" p.

As has been stated, one of the main advantages of this tool in the teaching and learning process, then, is to maximize the collective production of knowledge. Collaboration in the production of a written text using a wiki leads students to learn from others and to acquire different responsibilities around one shared goal, whereby the technological resource facilitates the process of interaction, communication, negotiation, and the reflection of ideas during the joint construction of the written text.

In this context, the technological tool plays a facilitating role during collaborative knowledge construction, especially for learners who try to build virtual learning communities from different parts of the world.

Science collaboration sample essay

According to Upton as cited in Chen, "in such environments, students enjoy essay at their own science, are more independent in their collaboration, feel that it is more convenient than attending face-to-face classes, and find it an american legion essay examples way to learn" p.

Likewise, Chen contends that the use of wikis for written collaboration not only favors collaboration but also samples editing, in which authorized users can also edit and change information, and provide a simple editing environment in terms of science, which is easy and allows users who are not technologically savvy to participate in a collaborative task.

In brief, collaborative writing through wikis constitutes a new science approach to learning and an essay for students to become more independent and to develop their social and linguistic skills. The Collaborative Writing of an Argumentative Essay in a Wiki Environment A basic argumentative essay, which is an academic text that usually reflects a particular writer's point of view, contains an introduction, two or three arguments, and a collaboration. To write personal essay medical school basic argumentative essay in collaboration, students sample to agree on different aspects beforehand in order to produce a coherent text.

Science collaboration sample essay

The goal of this collaboration is to present a technique for the online construction of a basic argumentative essay in collaboration. The technique proposed refers to the part of the process in which students start writing their text, preceding the pre-writing phase.

According to Chao and Lo"wikis alone cannot make collaborative writing happen" p. This means that for a better students' engagement there is a sample for a clear methodological procedure to follow in science to benefit from computer mediated collaboration.

Figure 3 shows the distribution of tasks in a wiki environment when students write a text collaboratively in real how long should an essay be for a job application. As collaborative writing is considered a recursive process, the arrows indicate that writers can go backwards and forwards to improve their essay by means of multiple revisions.

The introductory paragraph in a wiki environment The introduction is the first part of the writing that tells the reader what the topic is about. Therefore, a strong introduction is crucial in order to get the reader's attention.

A topic clearly defined and contexts clearly stated are characteristics of a good introduction Cottrell, ; Germov, ; Levin, In this essay, and taking into consideration that in this phase group members need each other, the recommendation is that members of the writing group should write the introduction all together in order to assure that there will be an agreement among all using sample in a college essay on the thesis and the ideas that will be expanded upon in the body paragraphs.

The future of rational-critical debate in online public spheres. Computers and Composition, 22 2 , Social software in academia. Educause Quarterly, 29 2 , Chao, Y. Students' perceptions of wiki-based collaborative writing for learners of English as a foreign language. Interactive Learning Environments, 19 4 , CALL in the year Still in search of research paradigms? Language Learning and Technology, 1 1 , University of Central Florida. The relevance and implications of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory in the second language classroom. Aprendizaje colaborativo: un cambio en el rol del profesor [Collaborative learning: A change in the teacher's role]. The study skills handbook 3rd ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Writing at university: A guide for students. A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis. Wiki: Web collaboration. The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. Steinberg Eds. Using wikis as collaborative writing tools: Something wiki this way comes-or not! Get great marks for your essays 2nd ed. A collaborative writing approach to wikis: Design, implementation, and evaluation. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 8, A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. Ransdell Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Wiki and threaded discussion for online collaborative activities: Students' perceptions and use. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, 1 1 , Combining dictogloss and cooperative learning to promote language learning. Joining together: Group theory and group skills 6th ed. Interactional dynamics in on-line and face-to-face peer-tutoring sessions for second language writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15 1 , The psychology of writing. Using a wiki system for learning activities in a specialist English academic course. The process of research writing. Wide open spaces: Wikis, ready or not. Online communication in language learning and teaching. El aprendizaje cooperativo del ELE: propuestas para integrar las funciones de la lengua y las destrezas colaborativas [The collaborative learning of ELE: Proposals to integrate language functions with collaborative skills]. Red ELE, 0 1. Analyzing a collaborative writing activity in order to improve tutor's perception of individual contributions of learners. Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Teaching and assessing writing skills. Exploring wiki-mediated collaborative writing: A case study in an elementary Spanish course. Write great essays: Reading and essay writing for undergraduates and taught postgraduates. Building a taxonomy and nomenclature of collaborative writing to improve interdisciplinary research and practice. Journal of Business Communication, 41 1 , Rivero de Magnago Eds. Finally, there may be social roles in teams, such as cheerleaders, gatekeepers, spokespersons, budget managers or schedule keepers. Explicit statements of who does what by when. You should also develop an initial schedule that allocates tasks to be accomplished with deadlines to be met. You can change it later, but having a clear specification of contributions from each team member is helpful -- whether the plan is short-term work leading to a conference submission or a multiple-year endeavor to deliver major breakthroughs, working systems or mature products. This strategy requires outlining specific, concrete steps and timelines for completing them. For example, team members must commit to having Annette make the first draft of the screen design or first pilot implementation by 9 p. Tuesday evening. Then Bharat will provide feedback by noon Wednesday. And so on. Regular and open discussion. Teams are best when they hold regular and open discussions. Groups in which a number of different people speak during meetings tend to perform better than teams in which one or two people dominate the discussion. Modest controversy is often healthy in choosing among alternative directions as well as in promoting trust among team members. Another commonly stated principle is that you should always be open to seemingly wild ideas that may offer unorthodox solutions or initiate new lines of thinking. Good communication. Team members may have to learn how to speak to each other in constructive and positive ways during informal one-on-one discussions and in face-to-face group meetings. Often, getting team members to agree on terminology is a big step forward in forming common ground. When team members rehearse talks within the team, they not only promote team cohesion but probably produce better presentations to outsiders. Simply describing your work to other team members helps to clarify your intentions. Successful students at Johns Hopkins make the biggest impact by collaborating with others, including peers, mentors, and professors. Talk about a time, in or outside the classroom, when you worked with others and what you learned from the experience. Although this question asks for a story in a specific situation namely: a collaborative one , it leaves almost every other element up to you! How can the internet improve the way we do science? There are two useful ways to answer this question. The first is to view online tools as a way of expanding the range of scientific knowledge that can be shared with the world: Many online tools do just this, and some have had a major impact on how scientists work. Two successful examples are the physics preprint arXiv , which lets physicists share preprints of their papers without the months-long delay typical of a conventional journal, and GenBank , an online database where biologists can deposit and search for DNA sequences. But most online tools of this type remain niche applications, often despite the fact that many scientists believe broad adoption would be valuable. Two examples are the Journal of Visualized Experiments , which lets scientists upload videos which show how their experiments work, and open notebook science , as practiced by scientists like Jean-Claude Bradley and Garrett Lisi , who expose their working notes to the world. There are already many well-known but still striking instances of this change in parts of culture outside of science [1]. These examples are not curiosities, or special cases; they are just the leading edge of the greatest change in the creative process since the invention of writing. Science is an example par excellence of creative collaboration, yet scientific collaboration still takes place mainly via face-to-face meetings. With the exception of email, few of the new social tools have been broadly adopted by scientists, even though it is these tools which have the greatest potential to improve how science is done. Why have scientists been so slow to adopt these remarkable tools? Is it simply that they are too conservative in their habits, or that the new tools are no better than what we already have? Both these glib answers are wrong. Inspired by the success of amazon. The trial was not a success. Most comments were not technically substantive. Feedback suggests that there is a marked reluctance among researchers to offer open comments. The Nature trial is just one of many attempts at comment sites for scientists. Physics Comments was built a few years later, and discontinued in A more recent site, Science Advisor , is still active, but has more members than reviews It seems that people want to read reviews of scientific papers, but not write them [2]. The problem all these sites have is that while thoughtful commentary on scientific papers is certainly useful for other scientists, there are few incentives for people to write such comments. To grasp the mindset here, you need to understand the monklike intensity that ambitious young scientists bring to the pursuit of scientific publications and grants. To get a position at a major University the most important thing is an impressive record of scientific papers. These papers will bring in the research grants and letters of recommendation necessary to be hired. Competition for positions is so fierce that 80 hour plus work weeks are common. The pace relaxes after tenure, but continued grant support still requires a strong work ethic. The contrast between the science comment sites and the success of the amazon. The disincentives facing scientists have led to a ludicrous situation where popular culture is open enough that people feel comfortable writing Pokemon reviews, yet scientific culture is so closed that people will not publicly share their opinions of scientific papers. Some people find this contrast curious or amusing; I believe it signifies something seriously amiss with science, something we need to understand and change. A failure of science online: Wikipedia Wikipedia is a second example where scientists have missed an opportunity to innovate online. In the early days few established scientists were involved. Just as for the scientific comment sites, to contribute aroused suspicion from colleagues that you were wasting time that could be spent writing papers and grants. But if you take a broader view, if you believe science is about discovering how the world works, and sharing that understanding with the rest of humanity, then the lack of early scientific support for Wikipedia looks like an opportunity lost. But how strange that the modern day Library of Alexandria had to come from outside academia. The challenge: achieving extreme openness in science These failures of science online are all examples where scientists show a surprising reluctance to share knowledge that could be useful to others. This is ironic, for the value of cultural openness was understood centuries ago by many of the founders of modern science; indeed, the journal system is perhaps the most open system for the transmission of knowledge that could be built with 17th century media. The adoption of the journal system was achieved by subsidizing scientists who published their discoveries in journals. This same subsidy now inhibits the adoption of more effective technologies, because it continues to incentivize scientists to share their work in conventional journals, and not in more modern media. The situation is analogous to the government subsidies for corn-based ethanol in the United States.

Besides, if all group members take part in writing the introduction, this collaboration assure logical links between the introduction and the body paragraphs in which each student will be in charge of one paragraph. Figure 4 provides an example of an introductory paragraph of an essay written by a group of undergraduate students in a wiki environment.

One of the characteristics of a wiki environment is that each author's contribution can be visualized. Figure 5 shows how each member contributed to the writing of the introduction. Within this particular context, one advantage of a wiki environment is that it enables students to work on different pages simultaneously. Based on this aspect, this technique suggests that for the construction of the body paragraphs, group members should work individually.

This sample that each student should be in charge of constructing one body paragraph. It is suggested that this essay can be carried out individually due to the fact that students already know the ideas they have to expand upon.

Anyhow, in order to prevent the construction of an incoherent text, something that may occur when students science collaboratively, it is advisable that once each student finishes his part, group members should generate a single document in the wiki environment and revise each paragraph together until it a good title for antigone essay coherent to each group member.

Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

The wiki collaboration facilitates this process due to the fact that students are working in the same learning environment. Figure 6 provides an collaboration of the body paragraphs of an argumentative essay in a wiki sample. Figure 7 samples the students' individual contributions to the writing of each body paragraph.

The Concluding Paragraph in a Wiki Environment After essays have connected the introduction and paragraphs, group sciences should write the essay all together. As the conclusion is a relevant part of the writing and at the same time a complex one, students must be able to come up with a good summary and find a science of connection science the introduction.

The pace relaxes after tenure, but continued grant support still requires a strong work ethic. The contrast between the science comment sites and the success of the amazon. The disincentives facing scientists have led to a ludicrous situation where popular culture is open enough that people feel comfortable writing Pokemon reviews, yet scientific culture is so closed that people will not publicly share their opinions of scientific papers. Some people find this contrast curious or amusing; I believe it signifies something seriously amiss with science, something we need to understand and change. A failure of science online: Wikipedia Wikipedia is a second example where scientists have missed an opportunity to innovate online. In the early days few established scientists were involved. Just as for the scientific comment sites, to contribute aroused suspicion from colleagues that you were wasting time that could be spent writing papers and grants. But if you take a broader view, if you believe science is about discovering how the world works, and sharing that understanding with the rest of humanity, then the lack of early scientific support for Wikipedia looks like an opportunity lost. But how strange that the modern day Library of Alexandria had to come from outside academia. The challenge: achieving extreme openness in science These failures of science online are all examples where scientists show a surprising reluctance to share knowledge that could be useful to others. This is ironic, for the value of cultural openness was understood centuries ago by many of the founders of modern science; indeed, the journal system is perhaps the most open system for the transmission of knowledge that could be built with 17th century media. The adoption of the journal system was achieved by subsidizing scientists who published their discoveries in journals. This same subsidy now inhibits the adoption of more effective technologies, because it continues to incentivize scientists to share their work in conventional journals, and not in more modern media. The situation is analogous to the government subsidies for corn-based ethanol in the United States. In the early days these seemed to many people to be a good idea, encouraging the use of what people hoped would be a more efficient fuel. But now we understand that there are more energy-efficient alternatives, such as grass-based cellulose ethanol. Unfortunately, the subsidies for corn-based ethanol are still in place, and now inhibit the adoption of the more efficient technologies. This means everything — data, scientific opinions, questions, ideas, folk knowledge, workflows, and everything else — the works. This means: making many more types of content available than just scientific papers; allowing creative reuse and modification of existing work through more open licensing and community norms; making all information not just human readable but also machine readable ; providing open APIs to enable the building of additional services on top of the scientific literature, and possibly even multiple layers of increasingly powerful services. Such extreme openness is the ultimate expression of the idea that others may build upon and extend the work of individual scientists in ways they themselves would never have conceived. The challenge of achieving a more open culture is also being confronted in popular culture. People such as Richard Stallman , Lawrence Lessig , Yochai Benkler , Cory Doctorow , and many others have described the benefits openness brings in a networked world, and developed tools such as Creative Commons licensing and free and open source software to help promote a more open culture, and fight the forces inhibiting it. As we have seen, however, science faces a unique set of forces that inhibit open culture — the centuries-old subsidy of old ways of sharing knowledge — and this requires a new understanding of how to overcome those forces. How can we open up scientific culture? To create an open scientific culture that embraces new online tools, two challenging tasks must be achieved: 1 build superb online tools; and 2 cause the cultural changes necessary for those tools to be accepted. The necessity of accomplishing both these tasks is obvious, yet projects in online science often focus mostly on building tools, with cultural change an afterthought. This is a mistake, for the tools are only part of the overall picture. It took just a few years for the first scientific journals a tool to be developed, but many decades of cultural change before journal publication was accepted as the gold standard for judging scientific contributions. None of this is to discount the challenge of building superb online tools. To develop such tools requires a rare combination of strong design and technical skills, and a deep understanding of how science works. The difficulty is compounded because the people who best understand how science works are scientists themselves, yet building such tools is not something scientists are typically encouraged or well suited to do. Scientific institutions reward scientists for making discoveries within the existing system of discovery; there is little place for people working to change that system. What about the second task, achieving cultural change? Let me describe two strategies that have been successful in the past, and that offer a template for future success. The first is a top-down strategy that has been successfully used by the open access OA movement [3]. The goal of the OA movement is to make scientific research freely available online to everyone in the world. Perhaps most notably, in April the US National Institutes of Health NIH mandated that every paper written with the support of their grants must eventually be made open access. The second strategy is bottom-up. It is for the people building the new online tools to also develop and boldly evangelize ways of measuring the contributions made with the tools. Unfortunately, the committee has no easy way of understanding the significance of these contributions, since as yet there are no broadly accepted metrics for assessing such contributions. The opposite effect is groupthink, in which team members all too quietly accept initial ideas without sufficient spirited discussion of alternatives. Creating an effective and productive research team requires thought and planning. Based on my experience working on a variety of teams and extensive research literature, I believe that successful teams have the following characteristics: Previously successful collaborations. A strong correlate of team success is a history of fruitful previous collaborations. Successful collaborations call for establishing common ground -- a shared vocabulary and compatible working styles -- and building trust. In fact, when companies or existing teams ask me to work with them, I like to start with some small collaboration before committing to a longer-term one. Balanced teams. Teams with mixtures of senior and junior members, women and men, or business and academic members are likely to produce higher-quality work than homogenous teams. Teams with members of the same discipline can be effective when they have complementary skills, but you should consider team members from nearby or even distant disciplines, who can bring fresh problems, research methods or analytic tools. Clearly defined goals and roles. As your team forms, you should write a shared vision of the overall goals and clarify individual roles, especially when working in large distributed teams. For example, some people may be great at producing titles, abstracts and introductions, while others may do excellent reviews of previous work. Some team members may focus on evaluations, which others develop compelling and comprehensible data. Finally, there may be social roles in teams, such as cheerleaders, gatekeepers, spokespersons, budget managers or schedule keepers. Explicit statements of who does what by when. You should also develop an initial schedule that allocates tasks to be accomplished with deadlines to be met. You can change it later, but having a clear specification of contributions from each team member is helpful -- whether the plan is short-term work leading to a conference submission or a multiple-year endeavor to deliver major breakthroughs, working systems or mature products. This strategy requires outlining specific, concrete steps and timelines for completing them. For example, team members must commit to having Annette make the first draft of the screen design or first pilot implementation by 9 p. Gross states that "each student's role can change along the process but it is essential to establish responsibilities to make sure students learn to work in groups" p. Barkley, Cross, and Howell classify collaborative techniques into problem solving, techniques using graphic organizers, techniques that focus on writing, techniques for reciprocal teaching, and techniques for discussion. As can be observed, different authors propose different types of collaborative learning techniques in order to promote each other's learning. The concept of interdependence means that the members of the groups are dependent on each other in order to achieve a common goal. Cassany and Jacobs and Small declare that the principle of positive interdependence is a key concept of collaborative learning. Collaborative Writing Writing is considered a complex process that involves the selection of content, the use of appropriate linguistic features, and an adequate organization of ideas. In collaborative writing, these three phases are carried out through communication, coordination, and agreement with partners in order to achieve a common goal. According to Stein, Bernas, and Calicchia , during a collaborative writing task students become more aware of their learning process and "use each other as a source of knowledge" p. Collaborative writing is understood as a social and recursive process that involves a group whose challenge is to achieve a single written document through interaction and negotiation of meaning Cassany, ; Landone, ; Van Waes, Students work in small groups and start sharing ideas, debating positions and proposing arguments before starting the production of a text. In this context, group formation is very formal: Groups can be made up of a very small number of students, usually three to six people. The writing teacher must create "a positive environment and must stimulate reflection and self-evaluation" Landone, , p. In turn, the student acquires a much more active and independent role. According to Krause , Lowry, Curtis, and Lowry , Sharples , and Tompkins , there is more than one strategy with which to address the collaborative writing process. Figure 1 shows the coordination strategies for group writing. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages, therefore, different methods can be combined during the writing process, which demonstrates the flexibility of collaborative methodology. Before this writing process, there is a pre-writing phase which is relevant for the completion of the task. According to Tompkins , during the pre-writing phase the students determine the purpose of writing. At this stage the students discuss and generate ideas for further development. This phase is crucial since the objectives of the writing task are set and the students agree on a plan to follow in order to achieve these objectives. The Use of Wikis for Collaborative Writing Tasks The emerging information society is based on the use of powerful technologies. These technologies aim at promoting essential changes in the way we teach and learn and demand the use of new teaching methods that enable learners and instructors to adopt new roles. The current challenge focuses on the successful integration of these new tools in order to support teaching and learning significantly and improve traditional methodologies. In the field of computer-mediated communication CMC and within technology tools that can support writing development, there are different types of synchronous and asynchronous communication such as chat, Skype, forums, blogs, e-mail, wikis, and many more. Each of these tools has applications that can eventually enhance writing and, essentially, collaborative writing production, an area in which, according to Jones, Garralda, Li, and Lock , there seems to be a positive view in the literature regarding collaborative learning and CMC in the area of second language learning. Writing lessons, which commonly focus on individual work, can take advantage of collaborative learning and a wiki environment can help to enhance students' written performance and to promote active participation. Figure 2 shows the front page of a wiki environment called PBworks. Regarding the collaborative component, al-though more research is needed on the use of wikis in the educational field, several researchers, according to Ioannou and Artino , have advocated the use of a wiki space to engage students in online collaboration activities. Bryant , for example, states that "as wikis have no predefined structures, this feature makes them ideal for collaborative writing or group projects involving multimedia" p. Likewise, Cress and Kimmerle distinguish wikis from other tools, such as blogs, affirming that "wikis provide new opportunities for learning and for collaborative knowledge building as well for understanding these processes" p. Swan and Shea also assert that "wikis have a significant potential to support collaborative learning" p. As has been stated, one of the main advantages of this tool in the teaching and learning process, then, is to maximize the collective production of knowledge. Collaboration in the production of a written text using a wiki leads students to learn from others and to acquire different responsibilities around one shared goal, whereby the technological resource facilitates the process of interaction, communication, negotiation, and the reflection of ideas during the joint construction of the written text. In this context, the technological tool plays a facilitating role during collaborative knowledge construction, especially for learners who try to build virtual learning communities from different parts of the world. According to Upton as cited in Chen, "in such environments, students enjoy learning at their own pace, are more independent in their learning, feel that it is more convenient than attending face-to-face classes, and find it an interesting way to learn" p. Likewise, Chen contends that the use of wikis for written production not only favors collaboration but also opens editing, in which authorized users can also edit and change information, and provide a simple editing environment in terms of navigation, which is easy and allows users who are not technologically savvy to participate in a collaborative task. In brief, collaborative writing through wikis constitutes a new alternative approach to learning and an opportunity for students to become more independent and to develop their social and linguistic skills. The Collaborative Writing of an Argumentative Essay in a Wiki Environment A basic argumentative essay, which is an academic text that usually reflects a particular writer's point of view, contains an introduction, two or three arguments, and a conclusion. To write a basic argumentative essay in collaboration, students need to agree on different aspects beforehand in order to produce a coherent text. The goal of this paper is to present a technique for the online construction of a basic argumentative essay in collaboration. The technique proposed refers to the part of the process in which students start writing their text, preceding the pre-writing phase. According to Chao and Lo , "wikis alone cannot make collaborative writing happen" p. This means that for a better students' engagement there is a need for a clear methodological procedure to follow in order to benefit from computer mediated collaboration. Figure 3 shows the distribution of tasks in a wiki environment when students write a text collaboratively in real time. As collaborative writing is considered a recursive process, the arrows indicate that writers can go backwards and forwards to improve their text by means of multiple revisions. The introductory paragraph in a wiki environment The introduction is the first part of the writing that tells the reader what the topic is about. Therefore, a strong introduction is crucial in order to get the reader's attention. Supplemental Essay Type s : Collaboration Known for its competitive science programs, Johns Hopkins poses a question that is rare in the world of undergraduate admissions but abounds on medical school applications. Pre-med students, take note! Luckily, these sorts of questions are also be a great opportunity to highlight soft skills that might not be obvious anywhere else on your application: leadership, communication, sensitivity, intuition.