Steiner, Frederick R. Reckoning with Authorities As you are developing your Lit Review, part of your objective is to identify the leading authorities within the field or who address your topic or theme. Some tips for identifying the scholars: Old Fashioned Method: Keep notes on footnotes and names as you read articles, books, blogs, exhibition catalogs, etc.
Are there names or works that everyone references? Use the catalog to track these reference down. Consider looking for state of the field articles often found either in a discipline's primary journal or in conference proceedings - keynote speakers. Look for book reviews. These resources are not specifically for Architecture or Planning. Remember therefore to be critical and careful about the assumptions you make with regard to the results!
Web of Science Description of this database. Updated weekly. Covers more than 12, journals in all subject areas. Also includes citations to conference proceedings. Categorize or find patterns in the literature.
Show where your study or project fits: perhaps filling in a gap in the literature, replicating a study in a new context, or using this earlier work to develop lessons for practice. As I indicated in my earlier blog , in the case of a proposal, "it is a major step in your research or project and part of an iterative process where you develop a topic, review the literature to see how it is treated, refine your topic, and review again.
In the end you will have a clear sense of where your study fits and what its contribution or importance is. It makes an argument but also examines alternative views or approaches. Don't just review work that supports your position. If you acknowledge uncertainty, or deal with positions that seem inaccurate in a way that seriously engages with them, your review will be stronger.
It outlines the range of work on an area and points to gaps. Because of this characteristic, it can typically be diagrammed. It is focused, using the question s you are trying to answer as a filter. This typically leads to one of several "shapes" for the review. It can be: An inverted triangle, starting broad and narrowing down to the key area of focus. For example, a project on cycling may start looking at cycling behavior, then recreational cycling, then off-road recreational facilities as the main focus.
Parallel bars, where two or three or four areas are examined, each for their implications. These days it is rarely comprehensive but rather has the more difficult task of focusing on important work.
A literature review is clear and careful about the sources of authority of the works it uses. There is a hierarchy of evidence roughly along the following lines and this list can be found in similar forms in numerous books about reading and writing research : Rigorous studies that have been reviewed by experts top.
Serious reports by government bodies or independent organizations. Opinion pieces by experts in the field. Opinion pieces by non-experts and advocates. Where someone is employed is far less important than the methods and data they used in the study. These sources of authority can be woven into the review: "A survey of elementary school children in Athens, Georgia, found. Web sites are "literature" but need to be cited just as carefully. The methods may be as important as the substance.
The methods used provide key information as you judge how relevant and believable the sources are. You may also want to replicate or modify a method in your own work so understanding how others used them is key.
Finding Literature There is so much "literature" in the contemporary information age that finding it might seem to present few problems. Literature review articles are a wonderful place to start looking for literature and can also provide models for your own work.They are often pricey but students subscribe. There is a review of putting roughly along the subsequent lines and this list can be found in rural forms in numerous books about reading and confidence research : Rigorous studies that have been cut by experts top. This search warrants articles, herd mentality essay writer, books and body reviews and may be searched by keyword shortage urbanauthor person searchingdivergence, or geographical area.
This search includes articles, reports, books and book reviews and may be searched by keyword topic searching , author person searching , institution, or geographical area. Newspapers are good for very current and very local information.
While I have dealt with the literature review briefly in my blog on writing proposals , the tips below provide more detailed advice on how to compose a literature review and how to find important literature in the age of information overload. To use Wikipedia in a sophisticated way, scroll to the end and look at the sources cited. Literature review articles are a wonderful place to start looking for literature and can also provide models for your own work. It makes an argument but also examines alternative views or approaches. Look for book reviews. Finding Literature There is so much "literature" in the contemporary information age that finding it might seem to present few problems.
Some related fields, such as public health, use a very specialized form of literature review called the systematic review that carefully compares multiple studies for their findings.
What do I do? The structure of the book is really well thought out and the chapters are written in a way which readers will find helpful and easy to understand. You may also want to replicate or modify a method in your own work so understanding how others used them is key.
In planning, journals such as the Journal of Planning Literature and Progress in Human Geography specialize in literature reviews. Call Number: LB