If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory, it is known as point-source pollution. Other examples of point source pollution include an oil spill from a tanker, a discharge from a smoke stack factory chimney , or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain. A great deal of water pollution happens not from one single source but from many different scattered sources. This is called nonpoint-source pollution. Photo: Above: Point-source pollution comes from a single, well-defined place such as this pipe.
Below: Nonpoint-source pollution comes from many sources. All the industrial plants alongside a river and the ships that service them may be polluting the river collectively. When point-source pollution enters the environment, the place most affected is usually the area immediately around the source. For example, when a tanker accident occurs, the oil slick is concentrated around the tanker itself and, in the right ocean conditions, the pollution disperses the further away from the tanker you go.
This is less likely to happen with nonpoint source pollution which, by definition, enters the environment from many different places at once. Sometimes pollution that enters the environment in one place has an effect hundreds or even thousands of miles away.
This is known as transboundary pollution. One example is the way radioactive waste travels through the oceans from nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France to nearby countries such as Ireland and Norway. How do we know when water is polluted? Some forms of water pollution are very obvious: everyone has seen TV news footage of oil slicks filmed from helicopters flying overhead.
Water pollution is usually less obvious and much harder to detect than this. But how can we measure water pollution when we cannot see it? How do we even know it's there? There are two main ways of measuring the quality of water. One is to take samples of the water and measure the concentrations of different chemicals that it contains. If the chemicals are dangerous or the concentrations are too great, we can regard the water as polluted. Measurements like this are known as chemical indicators of water quality.
Another way to measure water quality involves examining the fish, insects, and other invertebrates that the water will support. If many different types of creatures can live in a river, the quality is likely to be very good; if the river supports no fish life at all, the quality is obviously much poorer.
Measurements like this are called biological indicators of water quality. What are the causes of water pollution? Most water pollution doesn't begin in the water itself. Take the oceans: around 80 percent of ocean pollution enters our seas from the land. When farmers fertilize the fields, the chemicals they use are gradually washed by rain into the groundwater or surface waters nearby.
Sometimes the causes of water pollution are quite surprising. Chemicals released by smokestacks chimneys can enter the atmosphere and then fall back to earth as rain, entering seas, rivers, and lakes and causing water pollution. That's called atmospheric deposition. Water pollution has many different causes and this is one of the reasons why it is such a difficult problem to solve.
Sewage With billions of people on the planet, disposing of sewage waste is a major problem. According to figures from the World Health Organization the most recent available at the time this article was updated in , some 2. Sewage disposal affects people's immediate environments and leads to water-related illnesses such as diarrhea that kills , children under five each year.
In developed countries, most people have flush toilets that take sewage waste quickly and hygienically away from their homes. Yet the problem of sewage disposal does not end there. When you flush the toilet, the waste has to go somewhere and, even after it leaves the sewage treatment works, there is still waste to dispose of. Sometimes sewage waste is pumped untreated into the sea.
Until the early s, around 5 million tons of sewage was dumped by barge from New York City each year. In early , it was reported that the tiny island of Guernsey between Britain and France has decided to continue dumping 16, tons of raw sewage into the sea each day.
In theory, sewage is a completely natural substance that should be broken down harmlessly in the environment: 90 percent of sewage is water. When people are sick with viruses, the sewage they produce carries those viruses into the environment.
It is possible to catch illnesses such as hepatitis, typhoid, and cholera from river and sea water. Nutrients Photo: During crop-spraying, some chemicals will drain into the soil. Eventually, they seep into rivers and other watercourses. Suitably treated and used in moderate quantities, sewage can be a fertilizer: it returns important nutrients to the environment, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which plants and animals need for growth. The trouble is, sewage is often released in much greater quantities than the natural environment can cope with.
Chemical fertilizers used by farmers also add nutrients to the soil, which drain into rivers and seas and add to the fertilizing effect of the sewage. Together, sewage and fertilizers can cause a massive increase in the growth of algae or plankton that overwhelms huge areas of oceans, lakes, or rivers.
This is known as a harmful algal bloom also known as an HAB or red tide, because it can turn the water red. It is harmful because it removes oxygen from the water that kills other forms of life, leading to what is known as a dead zone. The Gulf of Mexico has one of the world's most spectacular dead zones. Each summer, according to studies by the NOAA , it grows to an area of around — square miles 14,—15, square kilometers , which is about the same size as the state of Connecticut.
Waste water A few statistics illustrate the scale of the problem that waste water chemicals washed down drains and discharged from factories can cause. Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by sewage and waste water. Each year, the world generates perhaps 5—10 billion tons of industrial waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other waterways.
However, there have been major improvements in waste water treatment recently. Virtually everyone pours chemicals of one sort or another down their drains or toilets. Even detergents used in washing machines and dishwashers eventually end up in our rivers and oceans. So do the pesticides we use on our gardens. A lot of toxic pollution also enters waste water from highway runoff.
Highways are typically covered with a cocktail of toxic chemicals—everything from spilled fuel and brake fluids to bits of worn tires themselves made from chemical additives and exhaust emissions. When it rains, these chemicals wash into drains and rivers.
It is not unusual for heavy summer rainstorms to wash toxic chemicals into rivers in such concentrations that they kill large numbers of fish overnight. It has been estimated that, in one year, the highway runoff from a single large city leaks as much oil into our water environment as a typical tanker spill. Some highway runoff runs away into drains; others can pollute groundwater or accumulate in the land next to a road, making it increasingly toxic as the years go by.
Chemical waste Detergents are relatively mild substances. At the opposite end of the spectrum are highly toxic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs. They were once widely used to manufacture electronic circuit boards , but their harmful effects have now been recognized and their use is highly restricted in many countries. Nevertheless, an estimated half million tons of PCBs were discharged into the environment during the 20th century.
They were carried there through the oceans, thousands of miles from where they originally entered the environment. Although PCBs are widely banned, their effects will be felt for many decades because they last a long time in the environment without breaking down. Another kind of toxic pollution comes from heavy metals, such as lead , cadmium, and mercury.
Lead was once commonly used in gasoline petrol , though its use is now restricted in some countries. Mercury and cadmium are still used in batteries though some brands now use other metals instead.
Until recently, a highly toxic chemical called tributyltin TBT was used in paints to protect boats from the ravaging effects of the oceans. Ironically, however, TBT was gradually recognized as a pollutant: boats painted with it were doing as much damage to the oceans as the oceans were doing to the boats.
The best known example of heavy metal pollution in the oceans took place in when a Japanese factory discharged a significant amount of mercury metal into Minamata Bay, contaminating the fish stocks there. It took a decade for the problem to come to light. By that time, many local people had eaten the fish and around were poisoned. Hundreds of people were left dead or disabled.
At high enough concentrations it can kill; in lower concentrations it can cause cancers and other illnesses. The biggest sources of radioactive pollution in Europe are two factories that reprocess waste fuel from nuclear power plants : Sellafield on the north-west coast of Britain and Cap La Hague on the north coast of France. Both discharge radioactive waste water into the sea, which ocean currents then carry around the world.
Countries such as Norway, which lie downstream from Britain, receive significant doses of radioactive pollution from Sellafield. The Norwegian government has repeatedly complained that Sellafield has increased radiation levels along its coast by 6—10 times. Both the Irish and Norwegian governments continue to press for the plant's closure. When we think of ocean pollution, huge black oil slicks often spring to mind, yet these spectacular accidents represent only a tiny fraction of all the pollution entering our oceans.
Even considering oil by itself, tanker spills are not as significant as they might seem: only 12 percent of the oil that enters the oceans comes from tanker accidents; over 70 percent of oil pollution at sea comes from routine shipping and from the oil people pour down drains on land.
The biggest oil spill in recent years and the biggest ever spill in US waters occurred when the tanker Exxon Valdez broke up in Prince William Sound in Alaska in Around 12 million gallons 44 million liters of oil were released into the pristine wilderness—enough to fill your living room times over! Estimates of the marine animals killed in the spill vary from approximately sea otters and 34, birds to as many as sea otters and , sea birds.
Several billion salmon and herring eggs are also believed to have been destroyed. There are three reasons for this: plastic is one of the most common materials, used for making virtually every kind of manufactured object from clothing to automobile parts; plastic is light and floats easily so it can travel enormous distances across the oceans; most plastics are not biodegradable they do not break down naturally in the environment , which means that things like plastic bottle tops can survive in the marine environment for a long time.
A plastic bottle can survive an estimated years in the ocean and plastic fishing line can last up to years. While plastics are not toxic in quite the same way as poisonous chemicals, they nevertheless present a major hazard to seabirds, fish, and other marine creatures.
For example, plastic fishing lines and other debris can strangle or choke fish. This is sometimes called ghost fishing. About half of all the world's seabird species are known to have eaten plastic residues. In one study of shearwaters in the North Pacific, over 80 percent of the birds were found to contain plastic residues in their stomachs. In the early s, marine scientist Tim Benton collected debris from a 2km 1. His study recorded approximately a thousand pieces of garbage including pieces of plastic, 71 plastic bottles, and two dolls heads.
Moore in But, as you'll know well enough if you've ever taken part in a community beach clean, persistent plastic litters every ocean on the planet: some 8 million tons of new plastic are dumped in the sea every single year. In some parts of the world, alien species are a major problem. Alien species sometimes known as invasive species are animals or plants from one region that have been introduced into a different ecosystem where they do not belong.
Outside their normal environment, they have no natural predators, so they rapidly run wild, crowding out the usual animals or plants that thrive there. Common examples of alien species include zebra mussels in the Great Lakes of the USA, which were carried there from Europe by ballast water waste water flushed from ships.
The Mediterranean Sea has been invaded by a kind of alien algae called Caulerpa taxifolia. Industrial Waste: The Industries hugely contribute to the pollution of water bodies. The industries at Mathura have caused nearly irreversible damage to the condition of river Yamuna. A huge amount of industrial waste is also dumped in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal which has impaired the marine life.
Oil Pollution: Oil spilled from ships and tankers is hugely responsible for polluting the sea water. As the oil floats on the water surface, it prevents the flow of oxygen into the water and thus sabotages the life expectancy of marine animals and plants. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a process where an increased level of nutrients in water bodies results in growth of algae in water.
It depletes the oxygen in water. This destructively affects water quality, fish and other aquatic inhabitants. Preventive Actions Taken: The Indian Government has undertaken strict regulatory action against industries who are responsible for polluting water bodies. The Government is providing funds to build toilets in every household of the villages and remote areas in the country.
Movies, advertisements, and skits are predominantly playing a big role in educating the people about the hazards of water pollution and ways to prevent it. Water treatment plants and Septic tanks are built to treat the sewage water. Conclusion: Water pollution is also posing a real time threat to the health condition of the Indian people who consume contaminated water.
To curb water pollution all the laws and regulations implemented by the government will be a futile practice without active participation of the local people. It is the responsibility of every citizen to contribute in conserving water bodies and keep them pollution free. Essay on Water Pollution — Essay 6 Words Introduction: Water is the most important resource on earth on which all the living and non-living beings depend on. Regardless of our dependence on this precocious commodity, we have a tendency to use it very carelessly, causing pollution and water scarcity.
To put it in an understandable way, the inland and underground water are being squeezed from Mother Earth due to the irresponsible activities of humans which depleted the quality of good water drastically.
Causes of Water Pollution: Although we have various definitions for water pollution, the essence of it is that the amount of pollutant present in water over a period of time, making water unfit for use. Upon the introduction of harmful materials, water loses its natural qualities and is transformed to contaminate one, which we call it as polluted water.
Additionally, the offensive smell, unbearable taste or sight makes water a polluted commodity. One of the most common reasons for water pollution is the direct disposal of human and industrial waste into the water bodies.
Another reason that needs to be mentioned on a highly worried note is the oil spill occurring in the oceans. Ever since the industrial revolution occurred, we have got factories that discharge high amounts of toxic chemicals, metallic compounds, sulphites and many other toxins that poison the water bodies. Even in the process of waste disposal by dumping, the industrial waste has toxins that can penetrate and contaminate the underground water table, thus contaminating the whole resource of water.
Other notable causes of water pollution include improper sewage or the seepage of sewage into the underground water table, misuse of the wastewater, marine dumping and the radioactive waste, atmospheric deposition, eutrophication, etc. Effects of Water Pollution: The first and foremost effect of water pollution is water scarcity. The polluted water is highly unfit for the use of humans and will need processing.
Some toxins in the water can enhance the growth of aquatic weeds while killing the major aquatic life. This causes an ecological niche and imbalance in the ecosystem. When the aquatic weeds grow in excess, they can clog the water canals, quickly dissolve oxygen, and can also block the light rays into deep water.
As a result, this process kills almost all the aquatic animals. The introduction of toxins in the food chain of the aquatic ecosystem can also affect the humans who consume the fish and other animals. Some of us believe pollution is an inevitable result of human activity: we also tend to argue that if we opt for urbanization with ultra-modern resorts and cities, some extent of pollution is sort of sure to result.
In alternate words, pollution could be a necessary evil that we all should place up with if we need to form progress. As luck would have it, not everybody agrees with this point of view.
One reason individuals have woken up to the matter of pollution is that it brings prices of its own that undermine any economic edges that crop up by polluting. Water Pollution is now an important trouble that needs an immediate solution as it affects the ecosystem that we depend on. This can never be distanced as we are a part of the environment. As such, before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, humans used to live in harmony with their immediate habitat.
As industrialization expanded around the world, so the use of pollution has also expanded with it. When the population on Earth was much smaller, no one though pollution would ever become such a serious issue.
It was once widely believed that the water bodies, such as oceans were too huge to get polluted. But now, with almost seven billion people on Earth, it is now very evident that we have limits and water pollution is one big sign that we have crossed those already. Conclusion: To conclude, water pollution is majorly the result of those oil spills and industrial, as well as human waste disposal.
This gravely affects our environment and eventually, the life of humans and animals. The deterioration of drinking water requires a prevention method on an urgent basis, which is possible only by the proper understanding, as well as support from each and every one of us.
Essay on Water Pollution with Conclusion — Essay 7 Words Introduction: Water pollution can be said to mean the contamination of bodies of water largely due to human activities. Examples of water bodies include rivers, lakes, groundwater, aquifers and oceans. Water pollution occurs when contaminants are added to the water bodies. In other words, water is said to be polluted when it is adulterated due to anthropogenic contaminants.
Water that is polluted due to contaminants is not fit for human use like drinking. Water pollution is a worldwide problem that requires serious evaluation of various policies in water resources.
Water pollution can be classified into marine pollution, surface water pollution and also nutrient pollution. Water pollution sources can either be non-point sources or point sources. Point source as the name indicates has just one cause of pollution that is identifiable such as wastewater treatment facility, storm drain, or stream. Non- point pollution sources are quite diffuse and an example is the runoff from agriculture. Pollution is a result of a cumulative effect with respect to time.
Types of water pollution: Surface water pollution has pollution of lakes, rivers and oceans as examples and is basically of water bodies that are open. Marine pollution is a sub-category of surface water pollution. It is the introduction of contaminants or their entry into large water bodies. Rivers are means by which seas are polluted due to rivers emptying into seas. A typical example is the discharge of industrial waste and sewage into the ocean and this is very common in nations that are just developing.
Groundwater pollution is also known as groundwater contamination and there are slight relationships between surface water and groundwater. Groundwater is quite exposed to contamination from some sources that are not contaminants for surface water. It is important to note that the difference between point and non-point sources is quite irrelevant.
Classification of pollution sources: Surface water and groundwater, even though they are separate resources are interrelated. It is surface water that percolates into the soil and it becomes groundwater. Also, groundwater can become surface water by feeding water bodies. Sources of water pollution are classified into two categories based on the origin. Point source water pollution is contaminants that enter a water body through an identifiable and single source like a ditch or a pipe.
A point source includes industrial storm water, storm sewer systems of municipals, and discharge from a sewage treatment facility, a factory or even a storm drain in the city. Non-point source pollution is contamination that is not originated from just one single source. This form of pollution occurs from the agglomeration of little quantity of contaminants collected from a huge area.
A typical example is the process of leaching of compounds of nitrogen from agricultural fields that are fertilised. Sources of contaminants: The particular type of contaminants that lead to pollution of water includes quite a wide range of pathogens, chemical and physical changes including discoloration and temperature elevation. Even though a number of the substances and chemicals that go under regulation occur naturally calcium, manganese, iron, sodium, etc.
It should be noted that negative impacts can arise from a high concentration of substances that occur naturally. Substances that deplete oxygen can be materials that occur naturally like plant matter e. Other anthropogenic and natural substances may lead to turbidity which disrupts growth of plants by blocking light and blocks the gills of a few fish species. The alteration of the physical chemistry of water includes electrical conductivity, acidity pH change , eutrophication and temperature.
Eutrophication is basically the concentration increase of chemical nutrients of an ecosystem to a level that causes an increase in the primary productivity in the ecosystem.
Pathogens: Pathogens are microorganisms that cause diseases. Waterborne diseases can be produced by pathogens in either animal or human hosts.
A popular indicator of water pollution is Coliform bacteria; it does not cause any disease but is a good bacterial indicator. Poor onsite systems of sanitation pit latrines, septic tanks or insufficiently treated sewage can result in high pathogens levels. Older cities have ageing infrastructures that may include sewage collection systems valves, pumps, pipes that are leaky and can lead to overflow of sanitary sewers.
There are also combined sewers that sometimes discharge sewage that is untreated during storms. Poor management of livestock operations is also a major cause of pathogen discharges. Inorganic and organic substances: Inorganic and organic matter can also be contaminants.
A lot of chemical substances are very toxic. Examples of water pollutants that are organic include: waste from food processing, detergents, herbicides and insecticides, by-products of disinfection, petroleum hydrocarbons, drug pollution, etc. Pollution Control: Sewage is basically treated by sewage treatment plants that are centralised.
Safely managed and on-site sanitations: If a household or business is not covered by a municipal waste treatment facility, there may be need for separate septic tanks that gives first treatment to the wastewater and infiltrates the wastewater into the ground. If this is not carefully and properly done, it can cause groundwater pollution. Industrial wastewater treatment: Most industrial facilities churn out a lot of wastewater that is quite like domestic wastewater and can also be treated by wastewater treatment plants.
Some industries generate wastewater with very high concentration of nutrients like ammonia, toxic pollutants e. Water pollution harms this important resource by making it unfit for human use and invariably causes harm to human health and the environment if proper measures are not taken to battle water pollution.
Essay on Water Pollution: Sources and Effects — Essay 8 Words Introduction: The presence of such substances in the environment which can be harmful to the various forms of life on the earth is what we term as pollution. Under this category, the contamination of water bodies is specifically referred to as water pollution. Lakes, oceans, rivers and groundwater mainly constitute the water bodies on the earth. However, due to various activities, especially of the human beings, this water has been contaminated to such an extent that researches have been forced to study the effect of this phenomenon on the life on earth.
Types of Water Pollution: The contamination of water bodies can be classified into three types, mainly, groundwater pollution, marine pollution and surface water pollution. Contaminated water from drains and industries which flows above the topmost layer of the soil usually creeps into the soil and gets mixed with the groundwater, thereby polluting it.
This contaminated water then interacts with the nutrients present in the soil and alters their quality. This is termed as groundwater pollution. Similarly, the wastewater released from the industries flows into the river and thereby reaches the seas and oceans. This is termed as marine pollution. It only affects humans but has an adverse effect on marine life as well. In the case of surface water pollution, the wastewater remains on the surface of the earth and polluted it.
This leads to the deficiency of nutrients in the soil as nutrients from other sources are not able to penetrate in the soil due to the presence of this contaminated water. Sources and Effects of Water Pollution: Different activities of humans have led to the contamination of the water bodies. For instance- Industrial Waste — Pollutants such as mercury, asbestos, lead and petrochemicals which are released as industrial waste, find their way in the water bodies and contaminate them. Often this makes the water unfit not only for drinking but also for domestic use and survival of marine life as well.
There have been numerous occasions where groups of dead fish have swept ashore at a given time due to the sudden increase of such chemicals in the water.
Moreover, the spillage of oil from the ships often creates a hindrance for the oxygen in the air to get dissolved in water, thereby making it difficult for the marine animals to breathe. Sewage and Waste Water — Another instance where the water bodies get contaminated is due to the release of sewage and wastewater directly into the bodies without being treated.
Untreated wastewater can at times pose to be very poisonous not only for human life but for fishes as well. Global Warming — Global warming is another phenomenon which has been often credited with the cause of increasing water pollution.
There has been a rise in water temperature levels due to global warming which has even led to the death of water animals as well as plants as they were not able to survive in the increased temperatures.
Radioactive Waste — Radioactive waste is another major cause of water pollution. Radioactive substances are utilized in atomic power plants, mechanical, medicinal and other logical procedures. They can be found in watches, glowing timekeepers, TVs and x-beam apparatus. There are likewise normally occurring radioisotopes from creatures and inside the earth.
If not appropriately discarded, radioactive waste can result in genuine water contamination episodes. Dumping — Dumping of strong squanders and litters in water bodies cause water pollution.Other hydrocarbon particles get settled down through rain water from air to ocean or sea water. Sum pros and american dream villa aug Relax while we are working on your essay. Estimates of the marine animals killed in the spill vary from approximately sea otters and 34, birds to as many as sea otters and , sea birds.
However biochemical oxygen is the demanded oxygen by the aerobic micro-organisms to oxidize organic matters of wastes. Effects of Water Pollution: The first and foremost effect of water pollution is water scarcity. By raising the temperature, it reduces the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, thus also reducing the level of aquatic life that the river can support. However, this will not help curb the water pollution problem on the global level. Toxic chemical byproducts from factories or pollutants due to human littering get washed away by wind and rain and pollute the rivers, canals, lakes, ponds etc. What are the Various Types of Water Pollution?
Poor sanitary conditions, absence of adequate medical facilities and low public awareness about health issues are some of the main cause of water pollution and the diseases caused by it. One of Causes of Water Pollution: Although we have various definitions for water pollution, the essence of it is that the amount of pollutant present in water over a period of time, making water unfit for use.
Pollutants also get absorbed by the soil and contaminate the ground water resources. Human's dependency on water will never go away, making it a key part to any civilizations future. We have to pursue some extreme changes in our propensities to spare the water on earth and also proceed with the likelihood of life here.
Industrial wastewater treatment: Most industrial facilities churn out a lot of wastewater that is quite like domestic wastewater and can also be treated by wastewater treatment plants. Water pollution is very hazardous to the environment. Water is polluted daily by trash and waste chemicals.