Typhoon Haiyan had significant economic, social and environmental impact. Six million workers lost their sources of income. Major rice, corn and sugar-producing areas for the Philippines were destroyed affecting the country's international trade and farmers' incomes. Tacloban's city airport was severely damaged, affecting business and tourism.
Fishing communities were severely affected with the storm destroying 30, boats and associated equipment. Social impacts More than 7, people were killed by Typhoon Haiyan. Calabarzon and Central Luzon are also important economic centers, with significant concentrations of industrial facilities.
Typhoons regularly hit the Manila area, but not on the same scale as Haiyan. Typhoon Angela Rosing in brought 1-minute sustained winds to the capital of kilometers per hour miles per hour , while Typhoon Nesat Pedring in introduced Manila to the peril of storm surge, which reached one and a half meters 5 feet along Roxas Boulevard.
But what if a storm with the strength of Haiyan were to make a direct hit on Manila, bringing wind speeds close to kilometers per hour miles per hour and storm surge exceeding five meters 16 feet , and would this even be possible? Fortunately, the mountainous terrain to the east of the capital effectively acts as a windbreak, reducing the wind speed of typhoons before they impact the capital, making it unlikely that a Haiyan-strength storm could impact Manila, but not impossible.
Similarly, the precise combination of factors needed to produce storm surges several meters high; very strong south-westerly winds in Manila Bay combined with a high tide; also have a low probability of occurrence.
Hypothetical Haiyan storm track across Manila, generated from the RMS Philippines Typhoon and Inland Flood Model Nevertheless, such a storm could cause widespread destruction to Manila and the surrounding regions, with heavy wind damage to roofs, windows, and poorly built structures. Damage to infrastructure, including transport systems, power and water lines, would hamper aid and recovery efforts. Storm surges would damage properties along the coast of Manila Bay and the area around Laguna de Bay, and combined with heavy rainfall, cause flooding far inland.
Even so, it was not fully prepared for a disaster of the magnitude of Typhoon Haiyan. This article outlines the key findings of an assessment of early warning efforts prior to the typhoon, conducted by Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ in December Publicly available documents and interviews with 41 survivors were analysed under three aspects of early warning: risk knowledge, event detection and communication.
Risk knowledge Hazard maps contribute to risk knowledge by identifying which homes have to be evacuated and where safe places are located. In the context of tropical cyclones, storms, floods, landslides and storm surges, hazard maps are critical tools for preparedness planning. Nine out of 29 respondents said that they did not know that their houses were located in a potential storm surge area, or assumed that they were not.
Almost all of the local government officials interviewed by GIZ claimed that they used the hazard maps to identify who would be evacuated and which evacuation centres were safe. Most evacuation centres were located outside the potentially flooded area shown on the PAGASA map, but since a much larger area was affected many were still flooded.
For some rivers in Leyte detailed and verified computer flood models exist, but the PAGASA hazard map has yet to receive such verification. Rain-induced landslide areas are also displayed on a hazard map, but as approximately two-thirds of Leyte are marked as landslide-prone many local residents regard the map, which does not appear to be based on a detailed study of individual sites, as exaggerating the extent of the risk. Several of the evacuation centres were single-storey buildings, typically schools, and were not strong enough to withstand the force of violent waves, so did not protect evacuees from the storm surges caused by the typhoon.
The Office of Civil Defense was tasked with checking on the safety of the evacuation centres, though the fact that many of the people who took refuge in them died suggests that these safety checks were not properly done or not done at all. The Philippine government estimated that about 71, hectares of farmland was affected.
Thousands of trees were uprooted leading to a massive release of carbon dioxide and loss of habitat with resulting effects on wildlife. Flooding knocked over Power Barge causing an oil spill affecting mangrove ecosystems. Major roads were blocked by trees, and were impassable. Destroyed houses in the city of Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan Responses Even though the loss of life was significant, it could have been much worse if not for the efforts of PAGASA, the Philippines' meteorological agency.
It broadcast warnings two days before Typhoon Haiyan hit, leading to the evacuation of approximately , residents.The highest death tolls in Leyte were in the coastal barangays hit by the full force of the storm surge. Cadiz pop. It broadcast warnings two days before Typhoon Haiyan hit, leading to the evacuation of approximately , residents. Metro Manila pop. Tacloban's city airport was severely damaged, affecting business and tourism. Fishing communities were severely affected with the storm destroying 30, boats and associated equipment. This modified map will constitute a logical technical typhoon into assessments of the conclusions to life and property, and should be exposed into land use business and disaster and emergency management. Prickly so, it was not merely prepared for a case of the magnitude of Recommendation Haiyan. Haiyan was a study high school life essay prolific intensification, starting every as an area of low pressure some 3, adjectives 2, miles east-southeast from landfall just six days previously. Fishing upstarts were wrecked and coconut groves crushed, stress many families without a livelihood.
Waves of up to 7 m in height battered the coast. In the city of Tacloban, widespread looting took place in the days following the typhoon.
Philippines armed forces and volunteers unload sacks of rice. In high-risk areas forced evacuation should be considered. Strengthen dissemination and communication of early warnings The lack of effective dissemination and communication of early warnings was a notable weakness in the run-up to the typhoon. Hypothetical Haiyan storm track across Manila, generated from the RMS Philippines Typhoon and Inland Flood Model Nevertheless, such a storm could cause widespread destruction to Manila and the surrounding regions, with heavy wind damage to roofs, windows, and poorly built structures.
This could be because settlements in Guiuan were protected from the full force of the winds by a chain of hills, and because the winds affecting the populated parts of Guiuan were offshore, reducing the danger of a storm surge. Thousands of trees were uprooted leading to a massive release of carbon dioxide and loss of habitat with resulting effects on wildlife. In some areas, In the city of Tacloban, widespread looting took place in the days following the typhoon. Local authorities should identify and strictly enforce no-build zones in high-risk areas, as well as ensuring that stipulations in conditional-build zones, such as special reinforcements and building exclusively for business use, not residential, are observed. Fortunately, the mountainous terrain to the east of the capital effectively acts as a windbreak, reducing the wind speed of typhoons before they impact the capital, making it unlikely that a Haiyan-strength storm could impact Manila, but not impossible.