See also: Sarvodaya Gandhi was assassinated in , but his teachings and philosophy would play a major role in India's economic and social development and foreign relations for decades to come.
Sarvodaya is a term meaning 'universal uplift' or 'progress of all'. Later, nonviolence leader Vinoba Bhave used the term to refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden.
Sarvodaya workers associated with Vinoba, including Jaya Prakash Narayan and Dada Dharmadhikari , undertook various projects aimed at encouraging popular self-organisation during the s and s.
Many groups descended from these networks continue to function locally in India today. The Prime Minister of India , Jawaharlal Nehru , was often considered Gandhi's successor, although he was not religious and often disagreed with Gandhi.
He was, however, deeply influenced by Gandhi personally as well as politically, and used his premiership to pursue ideological policies based on Gandhi's principles.
Nehru also pushed through major legislation that granted legal rights and freedoms to Indian women, and outlawed untouchability and many different kinds of social discrimination, in the face of strong opposition from orthodox Hindus.
Not all of Nehru's policies were Gandhian. Nehru refused to condemn the USSR 's —57 invasion of Hungary to put down an anti-communist, popular revolt. Some of his economic policies were criticised for removing the right of property and freedoms from the landowning peasants of Gujarat for whom Gandhi had fought in the early s.
India's economic policies under Nehru were highly different from Gandhi's with Nehru following a socialist model. Nehru also brought Goa and Hyderabad into the Indian union through military invasion. At this point it is important to note that Gandhi believed in a kind of socialism but one that was very different from Nehru's. In praise of socialism, Gandhi once said, " It therefore requires crystal-like means to achieve it. He called this a difference in emphasis, his being on 'means' while Nehru's being on ends.
Nehru's biggest failure is often considered to be the Sino-Indian War , though his policy is said to have been inspired by Gandhian pacifism.
In this instance, it led to the defeat of the Indian Army against a surprise Chinese invasion. Nehru had neglected the defence budget and disallowed the Army to prepare, which caught the soldiers in India's north eastern frontier off-guard with lack of supplies and reinforcements.
See also: Apartheid , Tienanmen Square protests of , and Civil Rights Movement Gandhi's deep commitment and disciplined belief in non-violent civil disobedience as a way to oppose forms of oppression or injustice has inspired many subsequent political figures, including Martin Luther King Jr.
Gandhi's early life work in South Africa between the years and , for the improved rights of Indian residents living under the white minority South African government inspired the later work of the African National Congress ANC. From the s, the ANC organised non-violent civil disobedience akin to the campaign advanced by the Indian National Congress under the inspiration of Gandhi between the s and s.
ANC activists braved the harsh tactics of the police to protest against the oppressive South African government. A crowd of people rushed towards them, according to Manuben. Manuben estimated that it took about ten minutes to carry Gandhi back into the house, and no doctor was available in the meanwhile.
They only had a first aid box, but there was no medicine in it for treating Gandhi's wounds. Everyone was crying loudly. In the house, Bhai Saheb had phoned the hospital many times, but was unable to reach any help. He then went to Willingdon Hospital in person, but came back disappointed. Manuben and others read Gita as Gandhi's body lay in the room. Bhargava arrived, and he pronounced Gandhi dead.
According to some reports, while the attending crowd was still in shock, Gandhi's assassin Godse was seized by Herbert Reiner Jr , a year-old, newly arrived vice-consul at the American embassy in Delhi. At first, Reiner had been at some distance from the path leading to the dais, but he moved forward, explaining later, "An impulse to see more, and at a closer range, of this Indian leader impelled me to move away from the group in which I had been standing to the edge of the terrace steps".
He soon fired several shots up close, at once felling Gandhi. And then a young American who had come for prayers rushed forward and seized the shoulders of the man in the khaki coat.
That broke the spell. Half a dozen people stooped to lift Gandhi. Others hurled themselves upon the attacker. He was overpowered and taken away". Reiner grasped the assailant by the shoulders and shoved him toward several police guards. Only then did the crowd begin to grasp what had happened and a forest of fists belabored the assassin He soon heard sounds, though, which in his words were "not loud, not ringing, and not unlike the reports of damp firecrackers According to Frank Allston, Reiner stated that Godse stood nearly motionless with a small Beretta dangling in his right hand and to my knowledge made no attempt to escape or to take his own fire.
Moving toward Godse I extended my right arm in an attempt to seize his gun but in doing so grasped his right shoulder in a manner that spun him into the hands of Royal Indian Air Force men, also spectators, who disarmed him. I then fastened a firm grasp on his neck and shoulders until other military and police took him into custody. The crowd beat him to a bloodied state. The police wrested him loose from the angry crowd, took him to jail. The 31 January issue of The Guardian, a British newspaper, described Gandhi as walking from the "Birla House to the lawn where his evening prayer meetings were held".
On his way, he was approached by a man [Godse] dressed in a khaki bush jacket and blue trousers. Godse greeted him with a Namaste, the customary Hindu salute. According to one version, stated The Guardian, Gandhi smiled back and spoke to Godse,  then the assailant pulled out a pistol and fired three times, at point-blank range, into Gandhi's chest, stomach and groin.
Gandhi died at pm, about half an hour after he was shot. After several such incidents with Whites in South Africa , Gandhi's thinking and focus changed, and he felt he must resist this and fight for rights. He entered politics by forming the Natal Indian Congress. Gandhi suffered persecution from the beginning in South Africa. Like with other coloured people, white officials denied him his rights, and the press and those in the streets bullied and called him a "parasite", "semi-barbarous", "canker", "squalid coolie", "yellow man", and other epithets.
People would spit on him as an expression of racial hate. In some cases, state Desai and Vahed, his behaviour was one of being a willing part of racial stereotyping and African exploitation.
Gandhi cited race history and European Orientalists' opinions that "Anglo-Saxons and Indians are sprung from the same Aryan stock or rather the Indo-European peoples", and argued that Indians should not be grouped with the Africans. The general image of Gandhi, state Desai and Vahed, has been reinvented since his assassination as if he was always a saint, when in reality his life was more complex, contained inconvenient truths and was one that evolved over time.
The medical team commanded by Gandhi operated for less than two months. Andrews , Gandhi returned to India in He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and community organiser. Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system.
Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look Indian. The British did not recognise the declaration but negotiations ensued, with the Congress taking a role in provincial government in the late s. Gandhi and the Congress withdrew their support of the Raj when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September without consultation.
Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders. Meanwhile, the Muslim League did co-operate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi's strong opposition, to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan.
In August the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms that Gandhi disapproved. In a June leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army.
Gandhi's private secretary noted that "The question of the consistency between his creed of ' Ahimsa ' nonviolence and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were backed by the local administration.
The peasantry was forced to grow Indigo, a cash crop whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. Unhappy with this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad.
Pursuing a strategy of nonviolent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the authorities. Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad ,  organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel. A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars revenue officials within the district accompanied the agitation.
Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May , the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended.
In Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners. In after the World War I was over, Gandhi aged 49 sought political co-operation from Muslims in his fight against British imperialism by supporting the Ottoman Empire that had been defeated in the World War.
Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of — Gandhi had already supported the British crown with resources and by recruiting Indian soldiers to fight the war in Europe on the British side.
This effort of Gandhi was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj self-government to Indians after the end of World War I. The British colonial officials made their counter move by passing the Rowlatt Act , to block Gandhi's movement.
The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial". He leveraged the Khilafat movement , wherein Sunni Muslims in India, their leaders such as the sultans of princely states in India and Ali brothers championed the Turkish Caliph as a solidarity symbol of Sunni Islamic community ummah.
It initially led to a strong Muslim support for Gandhi. However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi's leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey.
It offered evidence of inter-communal harmony in joint Rowlatt satyagraha demonstration rallies, raising Gandhi's stature as the political leader to the British.
Jinnah began creating his independent support, and later went on to lead the demand for West and East Pakistan.
Deadly religious riots re-appeared in numerous cities, with 91 in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh alone. If Indians refused to co-operate, British rule would collapse and swaraj would come. In February , Gandhi cautioned the Viceroy of India with a cable communication that if the British were to pass the Rowlatt Act , he would appeal to Indians to start civil disobedience. The satyagraha civil disobedience followed, with people assembling to protest the Rowlatt Act. On 30 March , British law officers opened fire on an assembly of unarmed people, peacefully gathered, participating in satyagraha in Delhi.
On 6 April , a Hindu festival day, he asked a crowd to remember not to injure or kill British people, but express their frustration with peace, to boycott British goods and burn any British clothing they own.
He emphasised the use of non-violence to the British and towards each other, even if the other side uses violence. Communities across India announced plans to gather in greater numbers to protest.
Hei Ra! During Gandhi's life, India was a colony of the United Kingdom , but wanted independence. He was, however, deeply influenced by Gandhi personally as well as politically, and used his premiership to pursue ideological policies based on Gandhi's principles.
Gandhi's recent prayer meetings in Hindu temples, said Godse, had started the practice of reading passages from the Quran , despite Hindus protesting this practice. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, beginning with the premise that God had created people free to perform any work they were inclined to choose, then questioned the legitimacy of the foreign British occupation to make the Indian nation slaves on their own land?
However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Start Your Free Trial Today The educational facilities at Porbandar were rudimentary; in the primary school that Mohandas attended, the children wrote the alphabet in the dust with their fingers.
Sarvodaya workers associated with Vinoba, including Jaya Prakash Narayan and Dada Dharmadhikari , undertook various projects aimed at encouraging popular self-organisation during the s and s. Godse had previously led a civil disobedience movement against Osman Ali Khan, the Muslim ruler of the princely Deccan region dominion of Hyderabad State in British India. With Gandhi isolated in prison, the Indian National Congress split into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , opposing this move. According to Arthur Herman, Gandhi wanted to disprove the imperial British stereotype that Hindus were not fit for "manly" activities involving danger and exertion, unlike the Muslim " martial races ".
She pushed the man aside saying, "Bapu is already ten minutes late, why do you embarrass him". Bhargava arrived, and he pronounced Gandhi dead.