In the case of multi-level, multi-sectoral mega-projects, we found that the national-level government dominated the network along with the NAO. As such, proper governance of large networks involving multi-level and multi-sectorial actors requires a combination of strategic management, organization theory, organizational behaviour, and public and international management concepts.
This suggests that examining such networks requires a more holistic, integrative view of the situation. With G8, world summits, and other global gatherings seemingly increasing in frequency, it becomes important to consider multi-level and multi-sectoral networks and how they are coordinated and managed. The themes presented in this study provide a basic framework for examining the governance of multi-level, multi-sectoral networks created to undertake a mega project.
Within the coordinating mechanisms, actors have at their disposal a variety of ties chief among them collaboration and coordinating bridges , as found in this study. Accountability rests on clear roles and responsibilities, clear expectations, and the possibility to know and assess who has done what, how, and when. Formalization and coordination mechanisms, amongst other themes, become critical to help foster accountability. At their core, they need to make it clear to all stakeholders who is accountable to whom and for what.
However, the sheer size of the network makes it very difficult to not only build but maintain successful network-level accountability, especially regarding evaluation. In fact, the joint federally and provincially funded independent evaluation report commissioned with PricewaterhouseCoopers was cancelled due to funding issues post-Games and before the end of the contract i.
Moreover, network-level accountability may not be desirable. Trying to be accountable to everyone in the network may result in dilution of accountability. What part of the performance is to be managed e. Performance and accountability can perhaps be determined for individual actors, but aggregating this information to a plus actor network becomes difficult, if not impossible.
Furthermore, nothing suggests that organizational performance and accountability is a simple or complex aggregation of individual performance. Even the concept of transparency, a pillar of democratic governance, becomes difficult. However, our study demonstrates that externally focused transparency, as elusive as it may be, remains an important issue for gaining public support.
In the end, the blurring of boundaries affects not only the dynamic between international private and federal, provincial, local public organizations, but clearly between actors within the public sphere itself. Inasmuch as accountability is a democratic requirement, and that it can only begin with transparency, it appears that network governance comes with its own issues and problems, not only in terms of efficacy and efficiency managerial concerns , but, most prominently, in terms of democratic imperatives.
More theoretically, our research questions the often-assumed complementary nature of network and democratic governance, and leads us to wonder if they are not, in fact, mutually exclusive, or trapped in a zero-sum game. Conclusions In summary, we sought to examine how the three levels of government in Canada established a network of over actors to coordinate efforts for hosting a mega project, the Vancouver Olympic Winter Games. Impact studies carried out or commissioned by host governments before the games often argue that hosting the event will provide a major economic lift by creating jobs, drawing tourists, and boosting overall economic output.
However, research carried out after the games shows that these purported benefits are dubious. As a study by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development explains, the jobs created by Olympics construction are often temporary, and unless the host region is suffering from high unemployment, the jobs mostly go to workers who are already employed, blunting the impact on the broader economy.
Only 10 percent of the forty-eight thousand temporary jobs created during the London Olympics went to previously unemployed people, according to the study. Economists have also found that the impact on tourism is mixed, as the security, crowding, and higher prices that the Olympics bring dissuade many visitors. Barcelona, which hosted in , is cited as a tourism success story , rising from the eleventh to the sixth most popular destination in Europe after the Summer Games there, and Sydney and Vancouver both saw slight increases in tourism after they hosted.
Economists have found that the Olympics' impact on tourism is mixed, given the security, crowding, and higher prices. Facebook LinkedIn Email Ultimately, there is little evidence for an overall positive economic impact. What was the outcome of the Rio de Janeiro Games? The country also faced a number of additional challenges stemming from its precarious economic and political situation.
The scramble to finish preparations came amid political chaos after President Dilma Rousseff was removed from office in , while the country was facing its worst recession in decades. Bidding to Host a Major Sports Event.
International Journal of Public Sector Management, 15 4 , — Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice. London: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar Frawley, S. Organising Sport at the Olympic Games.
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London: Routledge. Google Scholar Horne, J. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar Ingerson, L. Gratton and I. Keywords: project management, mega projects, Olympic Games 1. A recent example of large scale failure was the Dome which was built for celebrating the new millennium.
In the case of multi-level, multi-sectoral mega-projects, we found that the national-level government dominated the network along with the NAO. Performance and accountability can perhaps be determined for individual actors, but aggregating this information to a plus actor network becomes difficult, if not impossible. The Olympic Park is closed, with most of its facilities overrun with waste and infested with insects and rodents.
Google Scholar Morgan, A.
Oxford: Elsevier. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Whereas the federal government focused on horizontal management i. Google Scholar Whannel, G.
Roads, train lines, and airports need to be upgraded or constructed. Development However, these countries invested massive sums to create the necessary infrastructure.
These recommendations include reducing the cost of bidding, allowing hosts more flexibility in using already-existing sports facilities, encouraging bidders to develop a sustainability strategy, and increasing outside auditing and other transparency measures. Tourism Geographies, 3 3 , —