From its beginnings until the present day, Canadian literature has been shaped by writers from many different cultural backgrounds. Certainly since the early s—as a result, in part, of Lester B. In the introduction to their controversial anthology Other Solitudes: Canadian Multicultural Fictions , Linda Hutcheon and Marion Richmond, for example, suggest that the Canadian literary canon has always been, by definition, multicultural, and that Canadian literary studies have always embraced ethnic minority writers.
Klein—came from ethnic minority backgrounds. And, as Enoch Padolsky observes—correctly, I think—many minority texts are still published by small, minority-oriented presses; these texts are less likely to be reviewed, and they are usually studied or taught by minority critics Realistically, however—and this is the argument advanced by such literary critics and theorists as Kamboureli, Himani Bannerji, and Roy Miki—multiculturalism manages difference while maintaining the Anglo-Canadian status quo.
Prior to the s, most Ukrainian Canadian writers published Ukrainian-language poetry and short fiction in North American Ukrainian newspapers. Aside from novelists Vera Lysenko whose novels Yellow Boots and Westerly Wild were published in and , respectively and Illia Kiriak whose trilogy Sons of the Soil was published in Ukrainian between and , and translated into English in , few Ukrainian Canadians wrote in English about their experiences as members of an ethnic minority group because of the intense pressure they experienced to assimilate to Anglo-Canadian society.
Ukrainian Canadians did not begin writing about their experiences of ethnicity until the s, when ideologies and practices of assimilation gave way to the mosaic model of Canadian nationhood. As Anglo-Canadian society began to recognize the value of ethnic minority groups to the multicultural nation, Ukrainian Canadians began to take pride in Ukrainian folk music, dance, and art. They benefited, too, from the general development of the Canadian literary establishment.
Multiculturalism created audiences and funding for Ukrainian Canadian literary works, so Ukrainian Canadian writers were ostensibly able to acknowledge and explore their Ukrainian backgrounds for the first time with neither embarrassment nor shame.
Ironically, however, what they wrote, and how they wrote it, often revealed their ambivalent feelings toward the language, institutions, and values of both their ethnic and national communities. Yet almost without exception, Ukrainian Canadian writers felt an urgent responsibility to document the personal or private hi stories of their people, previously unrecorded in official or public narratives of Canadian history.
Many writers, when faced with the self-appointed task of authentically articulating the histories of Ukrainian Canadians, questioned the appropriateness of standard English in communicating the lived experiences of Ukrainian Canadians, and they rejected established literary styles and genres that seemed inadequate for exploring the complex, hybrid identities of individuals who straddle two worlds.
Both thematically and formally, these writers foregrounded the uneasy relation between ethnic and national identity, as well as the gap they perceived between language and reality. For example, writers such as Helen Potrebenko, Maara Haas, and Marusya Bociurkiw critically examine the political allegiances, patriarchal social structures, and heterosexism of their Ukrainian Canadian communities.
Writers such as Myrna Kostash and Janice Kulyk Keefer question their sense of belonging to the Old Country from which their parents or grandparents emigrated. Nor is it coincidental that Ukrainian Canadian cultural studies programs and scholarship related to Ukrainian Canadian cultural production emerged alongside the introduction and institutionalization of multiculturalism.
Not surprisingly, given their long history of social organization and political activism, Ukrainian Canadians—and, in particular, Ukrainian Canadian scholars—played an active, if not central, role in lobbying for the institutionalization of multiculturalism.
Interestingly, when Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau eventually announced his new policy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework, in October , he did so at a meeting of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress Hryniuk and Luciuk 3.
Between and , Ukrainian Canadian scholars convened on numerous occasions to formulate strategies for preserving and promoting the Ukrainian way of life in Canada. In fact, while the conference title suggests cross-cultural perspectives, the primary focus of the conference was Ukrainian literature in Canada.
As Winfried Siemerling points out, this is hardly surprising given that the conference was organized by the Canadian Institute of Canadian Studies on the occasion of the seventy-fifth anniversary of Ukrainian publishing in Canada .
My reflex action is to spit on the word that was spat on me in my formative years of the middle thirties. Dirty ethnic, rotten Slavic ethnic, ghetto freak ethnic.
I was hyphenated, set apart by the English, Scottish, Irish factors outside the ghetto. Each time the word ethnic rears its hyphenated head, the odour of a clogged sewer smelling of racism poisons the air.
As a contributor to that literature, I find it difficult to see myself as a so-called hyphenated Canadian When I wake up in the morning, I check myself out to see if I am still a man. Having determined that I am, I then face the world on its merits I do not live in the past. In , the Chair of Ukrainian Studies was founded at the University of Toronto and, in , the Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies which publishes the Canadian Ethnic Studies journal was established at the University of Manitoba, providing courses in Ukrainian and Ukrainian Canadian literature, folklore, history, and arts.
Headed by the Huculak Chair of Ukrainian Culture and Ethnography, the Ukrainian Folklore Program offers students at the undergraduate and graduate level courses in folk song, dance, art, rites of passage, and calendar customs. From the s until , approximately Anne Applebaum, Red Famine.
Stalin's War on Ukraine The most recent book by Anne Applebaum was published in November, , and was quickly translated into Polish and Ukrainian the Ukrainian translation was presented in Kyiv in May, After studying Eastern Europe as an essayist, traveler and historian look at her book Between East and West: across the borderlands of Europe , then the history of the beginnings of the Cold War Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe , and of Soviet concentration camps Gulag: A History , Applebaum turned to the one of the most gloomy events in Ukrainian 20th century history: artificial famine organized by Stalin's regime against Soviet peasants in , which caused around 4 million deaths in Ukraine alone.
One of the great assets of Applebaum's scholarship is that it is largely based on the work of Ukrainian historians in the past decades. This, in a sense, turns Red Famine into a bridge between Ukrainian research which appears mostly in Ukrainian or Russian languages and a global audience.
Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow. Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine A classic book about the Holodomor, without which further studies like those by Applebaum would not be possible.
Harvest provided a comprehensive, macabre picture of the tragedy to the Western audiences; it was published in , but it still contains a lot of important information and estimations 6. Roman Szporluk, Russia, Ukraine, and the breakup of the Soviet Union A study by one of the best American historians of Eastern Europe — Szporluk was heading Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute from until — this book looks into difficult relationships between nationalities in the Soviet Union, Russian attempts to dominate other ethnicities, and their failure to do so.
It also looks at how the Soviet Union's new territories that were captured as a result of the World War II including Western Ukraine, Baltic States, Western Belarus fomented a viral nationalism which eventually spread all over the Soviet Union and contributed to its collapse. Larry Wolff, The Idea of Galicia. Ruslan Dzarasov provides a detailed analysis of Russian corporate governance, labour practices and investment strategies.
By comparing the practices of Russian companies to the typical models of corporate governance and investment behaviour of big firms in the West, Dzarasov sheds light on the relationship between the core and periphery of the capitalist world-system. Contains an extensive chapter on the history of Crimea. Note by New Cold War. There are a total of 23 chapters and 25 contributors in the book. The book is available for free download via a Creative Commons License here. Geopolitical Economy After U.
Radhika Desai offers a radical critique of the theories of U. Read an excerpt here. Also at that link is background information on the book and its subject matter. Elizabeth Holtzman received a confidential tip that American immigration authorities knew of dozens of former Nazis — some implicated in serious war crimes — who were living in the U.
But that was just the tip of the iceberg, according to investigative reporter Eric Lichtblau. Lichtblau says there were whole networks of spy groups around the world made up of Nazis — and they entered the U. And then in , media reports and congressional interest finally spurred the creation of a Nazi-hunting unit with the Justice Department.
That prompted the first wave of Nazi-hunting, Lichtblau says. Under the direction of the National Archives the Interagency Working Group [IWG] opened to research over 8 million of pages of records — including recent 21 st century documentation. Of particular importance to this volume are many declassified intelligence records from the Central Intelligence Agency and the Army Intelligence Command, which were not fully processed and available at the time that the IWG issued its Final Report in Intelligence and the Nazis.
Professors Richard Breitman and Norman J. This volume of essays points to the significant impact that flowed from Congress and the Executive Branch agencies in adopting a broader and fuller release of previously security classified war crimes documentation. Introduction to the interview by Paul H.Spec, issue of Essays on Canadian Writing 57 : 1— But with few exceptions, Ukrainian Canadian scholars concentrate on texts that follow traditional generic conventions realist fiction, most commonly , overlooking texts that challenge generic boundaries. His account of Ukraine is deep but accessible to a broad audience, a masterpiece of informed scholarship and rich storytelling.
No other insider with high-level access has written so candidly of the nuclear strategy of the late Eisenhower and early Kennedy years, and nothing has fundamentally changed since that era. Miki, Roy.
As a contributor to that literature, I find it difficult to see myself as a so-called hyphenated Canadian Why do they do so almost exclusively within the structures of Ukrainian Canadian studies programs? But with few exceptions, Ukrainian Canadian scholars concentrate on texts that follow traditional generic conventions realist fiction, most commonly , overlooking texts that challenge generic boundaries. It is my fondest hope with this book to contribute to a peaceful resolution to that conflict. Mycak, Sonia.
As a contributor to that literature, I find it difficult to see myself as a so-called hyphenated Canadian This is its unique contribution: although it talks a lot about history the Cossacks, the Habsburgs, the Russians, and the revolutions, for example , its key aim is to understand contemporary Ukraine and the key topics behind the country's self-identification such as its relationship with Russia, its geopolitics, its economics and religions, etcetera. As Anglo-Canadian society began to recognize the value of ethnic minority groups to the multicultural nation, Ukrainian Canadians began to take pride in Ukrainian folk music, dance, and art. Padolsky, Enoch. Berry and J.
Why do they do so almost exclusively within the structures of Ukrainian Canadian studies programs? This book traces the imperial legacies, in particular identities and institutions of the Russian and Soviet period, and post-Soviet transition politics.
In order to fill the gap I perceived, I set out to write a Ukrainian Canadian novel. As a result, my views about Russia essentially matched the negative Western narrative. This book traces the anatomy of this deception, unmasking the powerful forces that are pushing the Western world toward yet another great war with Russia.
The ten-page introduction and table of contents of the book is available online here on Academia. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, This book is an illuminating introduction to the defining issue shaping global politics for our time. In the process of writing my book, which ultimately doubled as my MA thesis, I discovered that more than a few Ukrainians before me had in fact published novels—novels, plays, poetry, short stories, and non-fiction. Glynn, Alexandra Kruchka. Regina: Coteau Books,
While I use the terms ethnic minority and mainstream literatures, I use them cautiously and provisionally, conscious of the possibility that such terms, by perpetuating a rigid division between centre and margin Anglo-Canadian versus non-Anglo-Canadian cultural practices and institutions , fail to account for the heterogeneity and fluidity of both.