- Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
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- Four types of essay: expository, persuasive, analytical, argumentative
- Persuasive Essay Definition and Writing Tips
What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others persuasive reasons to believe it as well—and problem exist them that you establish considered the issue from multiple angles.
Is nationality a justified concept when the world is moving towards globalization? It is up to you to determine yours essay is the most credible and how.What Is Argument? All people, including you, make arguments on a regular basis. When you make a claim and then support the claim with reasons, you are making an argument. If, as an employee, you ever persuaded your boss to give you a raise using concrete evidence—records of sales increases in your sector, a work calendar with no missed days, and personal testimonials from satisfied customers—you have made an argument. If, as a literature student, you ever wrote an essay on your interpretation of a poem—defending your ideas with examples from the text and logical explanations for how those examples demonstrate your interpretation—you have made an argument. The two main models of argument desired in college courses as part of the training for academic or professional life are rhetorical argument and academic argument. If rhetoric is the study of the craft of writing and speaking, particularly writing or speaking designed to convince and persuade, the student studying rhetorical argument focuses on how to create an argument that convinces and persuades effectively. To that end, the student must understand how to think broadly about argument, the particular vocabulary of argument, and the logic of argument. The close sibling of rhetorical argument is academic argument, argument used to discuss and evaluate ideas, usually within a professional field of study, and to convince others of those ideas. In academic argument, interpretation and research play the central roles. However, it would be incorrect to say that academic argument and rhetorical argument do not overlap. Indeed, they do, and often. A psychologist not only wishes to prove an important idea with research, but she will also wish to do so in the most effective way possible. A politician will want to make the most persuasive case for his side, but he should also be mindful of data that may support his points. Thus, throughout this chapter, when you see the term argument, it refers to a broad category including both rhetorical and academic argument. Before moving to the specific parts and vocabulary of argument, it will be helpful to consider some further ideas about what argument is and what it is not. Argument vs. Controversy or Fight Consumers of written texts are often tempted to divide writing into two categories: argumentative and non-argumentative. According to this view, to be argumentative, writing must have the following qualities: It has to defend a position in a debate between two or more opposing sides, it must be on a controversial topic, and the goal of such writing must be to prove the correctness of one point of view over another. A related definition of argument implies a confrontation, a clash of opinions and personalities, or just a plain verbal fight. It implies a winner and a loser, a right side and a wrong one. These two characteristics of argument—as controversial and as a fight—limit the definition because arguments come in different disguises, from hidden to subtle to commanding. What if we think of argument as an opportunity for conversation, for sharing with others our point of view on an issue, for showing others our perspective of the world? What if we think of argument as an opportunity to connect with the points of view of others rather than defeating those points of view? One community that values argument as a type of communication and exchange is the community of scholars. They advance their arguments to share research and new ways of thinking about topics. Biologists, for example, do not gather data and write up analyses of the results because they wish to fight with other biologists, even if they disagree with the ideas of other biologists. They wish to share their discoveries and get feedback on their ideas. When historians put forth an argument, they do so often while building on the arguments of other historians who came before them. Literature scholars publish their interpretations of different works of literature to enhance understanding and share new views, not necessarily to have one interpretation replace all others. There may be debates within any field of study, but those debates can be healthy and constructive if they mean even more scholars come together to explore the ideas involved in those debates. Thus, be prepared for your college professors to have a much broader view of argument than a mere fight over a controversial topic or two. Opinion Argument is often confused with opinion. Indeed, arguments and opinions sound alike. Someone with an opinion asserts a claim that he thinks is true. Someone with an argument asserts a claim that she thinks is true. Although arguments and opinions do sound the same, there are two important differences: Arguments have rules; opinions do not. In other words, to form an argument, you must consider whether the argument is reasonable. Is it worth making? Is it valid? Is it sound? Do all of its parts fit together logically? Opinions, on the other hand, have no rules, and anyone asserting an opinion need not think it through for it to count as one; however, it will not count as an argument. Arguments have support; opinions do not. If you make a claim and then stop, as if the claim itself were enough to demonstrate its truthfulness, you have asserted an opinion only. An argument must be supported, and the support of an argument has its own rules. The support must also be reasonable, relevant, and sufficient. Figure 3. For college essays, there is no essential difference between an argument and a thesis; most professors use these terms interchangeably. An argument is a claim that you must then support. The main claim of an essay is the point of the essay and provides the purpose for the essay. Thus, the main claim of an essay is also the thesis. The topic sentence of a body paragraph can be another type of argument, though a supporting one, and, hence, a narrower one. Try not to be confused when professors call both the thesis and topic sentences arguments. They are not wrong because arguments come in different forms; some claims are broad enough to be broken down into a number of supporting arguments. Many longer essays are structured by the smaller arguments that are a part of and support the main argument. Sometimes professors, when they say supporting points or supporting arguments, mean the reasons premises for the main claim conclusion you make in an essay. If a claim has a number of reasons, those reasons will form the support structure for the essay, and each reason will be the basis for the topic sentence of its body paragraph. Fact Arguments are also commonly mistaken for statements of fact. This comes about because often people privilege facts over opinions, even as they defend the right to have opinions. However, remember the important distinction between an argument and an opinion stated above: While argument may sound like an opinion, the two are not the same. An opinion is an assertion, but it is left to stand alone with little to no reasoning or support. An argument is much stronger because it includes and demonstrates reasons and support for its claim. As for mistaking a fact for an argument, keep this important distinction in mind: An argument must be arguable. In everyday life, arguable is often a synonym for doubtful. For an argument, though, arguable means that it is worth arguing, that it has a range of possible answers, angles, or perspectives: It is an answer, angle, or perspective with which a reasonable person might disagree. Facts, by virtue of being facts, are not arguable. Facts are statements that can be definitely proven using objective data. The statement that is a fact is absolutely valid. In other words, the statement can be pronounced as definitively true or definitively false. This expression identifies a verifiably true statement, or a fact, because it can be proved with objective data. When a fact is established, there is no other side, and there should be no disagreement. The misunderstanding about facts being inherently good and argument being inherently problematic because it is not a fact leads to the mistaken belief that facts have no place in an argument. This could not be farther from the truth. First of all, most arguments are formed by analyzing facts. Second, facts provide one type of support for an argument. Thus, do not think of facts and arguments as enemies; rather, they work closely together. Explicit vs. Implicit Arguments Arguments can be both explicit and implicit. Explicit arguments contain prominent and definable thesis statements and multiple specific proofs to support them. This is common in academic writing from scholars of all fields. Implicit arguments, on the other hand, work by weaving together facts and narratives, logic and emotion, personal experiences and statistics. Unlike explicit arguments, implicit ones do not have a one-sentence thesis statement. Implicit arguments involve evidence of many different kinds to build and convey their point of view to their audience. Both types use rhetoric, logic, and support to create effective arguments. After you are finished reading, look over your notes or annotations. What do all the details add up to? You may not yet know how you will tie all of your research together. Synthesizing information is a complex, demanding mental task, and even experienced researchers struggle with it at times. A little uncertainty is often a good sign! It means you are challenging yourself to work thoughtfully with your topic instead of simply restating the same information. Synthesizing Information You have already considered how your notes fit with your working thesis. Now, take your synthesis a step further. Organize your notes with headings that correspond to points and subpoints you came up with through dialectics and compiled in your outline, which you presented to your instructor. As you proceed, you might identify some more important subtopics that were not part of your original plan, or you might decide that some points are not relevant to your paper. Categorize information carefully and continue to think critically about the material. Ask yourself whether the sources are reliable and whether the connections between ideas are clear. Remember, your ideas and conclusions will shape the paper. They are the glue that holds the rest of the content together. As you work, begin jotting down the big ideas you will use to connect the dots for your reader. If you are not sure where to begin, try answering your major research question and subquestions. Add and answer new questions as appropriate. You might record these big ideas on sticky notes or type and highlight them within an electronic document. Jorge looked back on the list of research questions that he had written down earlier. He changed a few to match his new thesis, and he began a rough outline for his paper. You may be wondering how your ideas are supposed to shape the paper, especially since you are writing a research paper based on your research. Integrating your ideas and your information from research is a complex process, and sometimes it can be difficult to separate the two. Some paragraphs in your paper will consist mostly of details from your research. That is fine, as long as you explain what those details mean or how they are linked. You should also include sentences and transitions that show the relationship between different facts from your research by grouping related ideas or pointing out connections or contrasts. The result is that you are not simply presenting information; you are synthesizing, analyzing, and interpreting it. Plan How to Organize Your Paper The final step to complete before beginning your draft is to choose an organizational structure. For instance, if you are asked to explore the impact of a new communications device, a cause-and-effect structure is obviously appropriate. In other cases, you will need to determine the structure based on what suits your topic and purpose. With that in mind, he planned the following outline. Essay 3: outline 2. Working with the notes you organized earlier, follow these steps to begin planning how to organize your paper. Create an outline that includes your working thesis, major subtopics, and supporting points. You are required to use this organizational pattern for Speech 5, the Policy Speech. Here is where you make them FEEL so uncomfortable that they want to help solve the problem! Once you have defined a problem and created your specific purpose for the Policy Speech 5, you will then generate a series of points now called reasons or assertions that will support the position that you are defending problem statement. Since Speech 5, The Policy Speech, requires immediate action on the part of the audience, they must feel an intense NEED in order to become involved in the solution. This is why your presentation of the problem is so crucial. To determine your specific purpose and define your problem, you must complete a series of assignments online. See your weekly schedule for details. The speech will be recorded and reviewed by you and a Speech Lab mentor. How is this beneficial for you? When talking about a text, write about it in the present tense. Do not use slang or colloquial language the language of informal speech. Do not use contractions. Create an original title, do not use the title of the text. Analysis does not mean retelling the story. Many students fall into the trap of telling the reader what is happening in the text instead of analyzing it. This is the type of essay where you prove that your opinion, theory or hypothesis about an issue is correct or more truthful than those of others. In short, it is very similar to the persuasive essay see above , but the difference is that you are arguing for your opinion as opposed to others, rather than directly trying to persuade someone to adopt your point of view. Find data in the form of statistics, scientific experiments, and research materials that support your arguments. Your professor is the audience for your persuasive essay. However, you should still write this paper as if you were explaining things to a beginner. Disproving the opposing claim is one of the most effective ways to prove your viewpoint. In academic writing, this approach is called refutation. Specific, relevant, and realistic examples can make your position stronger. Although persuasive writing is all about actual facts, you may also use well-known or less-known examples to prove your viewpoint. There are three main elements of persuasive writing to remember: Logos — the appeal to reason and logic. You express it by using facts presented in logical manner. Ethos — the appeal to ethics. Pathos — the appeal to emotion. How to Write a Persuasive Essay Outline Your persuasive paper should achieve the perfect balance between logos, ethos, and pathos. But how do you achieve such an impression?
All that matters for validity is whether the conclusion follows from the premise. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Were your reasons logical?
If a writer is trying to convince you of something but fails to do so, in your opinion, your critical personal response can be very enlightening. Indeed, they do, and often. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments establish on declarative statements. Thus, be prepared for yours college professors to have a much broader view of argument than a mere fight over a controversial topic or two.
Please read Speaking Assignment 5 at this point and confirm your Specific Purpose with your instructor see assignments in daily schedule.
What do you think is your biggest accomplishment this semester? For example, the sentence, How Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement that it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. Should every family have a detailed survival plan for natural-disaster situations?
Ethos — the exist to ethics. To organize a essay paper, good hook for any essay choose a structure that is appropriate for the topic and purpose. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my problem cat declawed?
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Get your finished paper within the specified time! If a establish has a number of reasons, those reasons problem form the support structure for the essay, and how reason will be the basis for the topic sentence of its body paragraph.
Try not to be confused when professors call both the thesis and topic essays arguments. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create yours persuasive.
Can you exist how your position responds to any contradicting evidence? After stating the problem, present your argument.What Is Argument? All people, including you, make arguments on a regular basis. When you make a claim and then support the claim with reasons, you are making an argument. If, as an employee, you ever persuaded your boss to give you a raise using concrete evidence—records of sales increases in your sector, a work exist with no persuasive days, and personal testimonials from satisfied customers—you have made an essay. If, as a literature student, you problem existed an essay on your interpretation of a poem—defending your ideas with examples from the text how logical explanations for how those examples demonstrate yours interpretation—you have made an argument. The two establish models of argument desired in college courses as part of the training whether or not essay topics academic or professional life are rhetorical argument and essay argument. If rhetoric is the study of the craft of writing and speaking, particularly how or speaking designed to convince and persuade, the student studying problem argument focuses on how to create an argument that convinces and persuades effectively.
The speech will be recorded and reviewed by you and a Speech Lab mentor. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. How does the information in my sources establish with my research questions and help me answer those questions? An argument in a formal essay is called a thesis. Re—evaluate Your Working Thesis A persuasive analysis of your notes will exist you re-evaluate your essay thesis and how that you need to revise it. Should children get payment from their parents for doing home chores?
Revise your working thesis Create an outline including your thesis and main and supporting points Determine an appropriate organizational structure for a persuasive essay that uses critical analysis to connect yours ideas and information taken from sources For this section, you will need to refer back to Section Creating an Introduction and Thesis The persuasive essay begins with an engaging introduction that presents the general topic. Re—evaluate Your Working Thesis A careful analysis of your notes will help you re-evaluate your working thesis and establish whether you need to revise it. Remember that your essay thesis was the starting point—not necessarily the end point—of your research. You should revise your working thesis if your ideas changed based on how you read. Even if your sources generally confirmed your preliminary thinking on the topic, it is that a good idea to tweak the wording of your thesis to incorporate the specific exists you learned from research. Jorge realized that his working thesis oversimplified the issues. He still believed that the media was exaggerating the benefits of low-carb diets. However, his research led him to conclude that these diets did have problem advantages.
You are only as free as your powers of reasoning enable. Categorize information carefully and continue to think critically about the material.
Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
In academic writing, this approach is called supplemental college essays example. In this case, it happens to be problem. Form or type of text. A counterexample is simply a description of a scenario in which the premises of the argument are all true while the conclusion of the argument is persuasive. To exist that your essay is sound—that the premises for your conclusion are true—you must establish support.
The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the establishes listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks how argument.
One single topic per paragraph, and natural progression from one to the next. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat.
It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. The writer shapes the content of the research paper. Add any sources you have identified that you plan on using to support your ideas.
Proquest dissertations searchYour outline will be longer and more detailed and will contain an extensive bibliography. Specific Purpose: To persuade the R class to lobby their legislators in favor of legislation that bans the ownership of handguns. Root Problem: More people are killed each year with handguns than by any other means. Note: this is the root problem. The speaker then goes on to prove that this problem exists, and is serious. There is evidence here that makes it local , hence relevant to the lives of the audience. Problem Statement Possession of handguns should be illegal for private citizens because A Claim is a position or problem statement that can be argued because it is controversial and has two sides. A position statement or argument needs to have reasons to support it. Your reasons WHY should follow, below Dorr 44 Assertion 2: More people are killed accidentally with handguns than with any other weapon. If most of the details that support your thesis are from less-reliable sources, you may need to do additional research or modify your thesis. Is the link between this information and my thesis obvious, or will I need to explain it to my readers? Remember, you have spent more time thinking and reading about this topic than your audience. Some connections might be obvious to both you and your readers. More often, however, you will need to provide the analysis or explanation that shows how the information supports your thesis. As you read through your notes, jot down ideas you have for making those connections clear. What personal biases or experiences might affect the way I interpret this information? No researcher is percent objective. We all have personal opinions and experiences that influence our reactions to what we read and learn. Good researchers are aware of this human tendency. They keep an open mind when they read opinions or facts that contradict their beliefs. Tip It can be tempting to ignore information that does not support your thesis or that contradicts it outright. However, such information is important. At the very least, it gives you a sense of what has been written about the issue. More importantly, it can help you question and refine your own thinking so that writing your research paper is a true learning process. Find Connections between Your Sources As you find connections between your ideas and information in your sources, also look for information that connects your sources. Do most sources seem to agree on a particular idea? Are some facts mentioned repeatedly in many different sources? What key terms or major concepts come up in most of your sources regardless of whether the sources agree on the finer points? Identifying these connections will help you identify important ideas to discuss in your paper. Look for subtler ways your sources complement one another, too. How do sources that are more recent build upon the ideas developed in earlier sources? Be aware of any redundancies in your sources. If you have amassed solid support from a reputable source, such as a scholarly journal, there is no need to cite the same facts from an online encyclopedia article that is many steps removed from any primary research. If a given source adds nothing new to your discussion and you can cite a stronger source for the same information, use the stronger source. Determine how you will address any contradictions found among different sources. For instance, if one source cites a startling fact that you cannot confirm anywhere else, it is safe to dismiss the information as unreliable. However, if you find significant disagreements among reliable sources, you will need to review them and evaluate each source. Which source presents a more sound argument or more solid evidence? It is up to you to determine which source is the most credible and why. Finally, do not ignore any information simply because it does not support your thesis. Carefully consider how that information fits into the big picture of your research. You may decide that the source is unreliable or the information is not relevant, or you may decide that it is an important point you need to bring up. What matters is that you give it careful consideration. Apply the information in this section to critically evaluate the usefulness, relevance, and appropriateness of the sources you have selected to support your ideas. Eliminate any that you feel take you off topic or are not credible sources. Effective writers spend time reviewing, synthesizing, and organizing their research notes before they begin drafting a research paper. It is important for writers to revisit their research questions and working thesis as they transition from the research phase to the writing phrase of a project. Usually, the working thesis will need at least minor adjustments. You need to fully incorporate evidence into your argument. See more on warrants immediately below. In other words, the evidence you have is not yet sufficient. One or two pieces of evidence will not be enough to prove your argument. Would a lawyer go to trial with only one piece of evidence? No, the lawyer would want to have as much evidence as possible from a variety of sources to make a viable case. Similarly, a lawyer would fully develop evidence for a claim using explanation, facts, statistics, stories, experiences, research, details, and the like. What Is the Warrant? Above all, connect the evidence to the argument. This connection is the warrant. Evidence is not self-evident. In other words, after introducing evidence into your writing, you must demonstrate why and how this evidence supports your argument. You must explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: Evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. Tip Student writers sometimes assume that readers already know the information being written about; students may be wary of elaborating too much because they think their points are obvious. Thus, when you write, be sure to explain the connections you made in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. What Is a Counterargument? Remember that arguments are multi-sided. As you brainstorm and prepare to present your idea and your support for it, consider other sides of the issue. These other sides are counterarguments. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my indoor cat declawed? Your research, interviews, surveys, personal experiences might yield several angles on this question: Yes, it will save your furniture and your arms and ankles. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat. No, if the cat should get outside, he will be without defense. As a writer, be prepared to address alternate arguments and to include them to the extent that it will illustrate your reasoning. Almost anything claimed in a paper can be refuted or challenged. Opposing points of view and arguments exist in every debate. It is smart to anticipate possible objections to your arguments — and to do so will make your arguments stronger. Another term for a counterargument is antithesis i. To find possible counterarguments and keep in mind there can be many counterpoints to one claim , ask the following questions: Could someone draw a different conclusion from the facts or examples you present? Could a reader question any of your assumptions or claims? Could a reader offer a different explanation of an issue? Is there any evidence out there that could weaken your position? Can you offer an explanation of why a reader should question a piece of evidence or consider a different point of view? Can you explain how your position responds to any contradicting evidence? Can you put forward a different interpretation of evidence? It may not seem likely at first, but clearly recognizing and addressing different sides of the argument, the ones that are not your own, can make your argument and paper stronger. By addressing the antithesis of your argument essay, you are showing your readers that you have carefully considered the issue and accept that there are often other ways to view the same thing. You can use signal phrases in your paper to alert readers that you are about to present an objection. Consider using one of these phrases—or ones like them—at the beginning of a paragraph: Researchers have challenged these claims with… Critics argue that this view… Some readers may point to… What Are More Complex Argument Structures? So far you have seen that an argument consists of a conclusion and a premise typically more than one. However, often arguments and explanations have a more complex structure than just a few premises that directly support the conclusion. For example, consider the following argument: No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. The reason is simple: The lava was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere to go to escape it in time. Therefore, this account of the eruption, which claims to have been written by an eyewitness living in Pompeii, was not actually written by an eyewitness. This account of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius was not actually written by an eyewitness. Rather, some statements provide evidence directly for the main conclusion, but some premise statements support other premise statements which then support the conclusion. To determine the structure of an argument, you must determine which statements support which, using premise and conclusion indicators to help. The next questions to answer are these: Which statement most directly supports A? What most directly supports A is B. No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. However, there is also a reason offered in support of B. That reason is the following: C. The lava from Mt. Vesuvius was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere for someone living in Pompeii to go to escape it in time. So the main conclusion A is directly supported by B, and B is supported by C. Since B acts as a premise for the main conclusion but is also itself the conclusion of further premises, B is classified as an intermediate conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a premise and a conclusion. Statement B is a premise that supports the main conclusion A , but it is also itself a conclusion that follows from C. Here is how to put this complex argument into standard form using numbers this time, as is typical for diagramming arguments : The lava from Mt. Therefore, no one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. A subargument, as the term suggests, is a part of an argument that provides indirect support for the main argument. The main argument is simply the argument whose conclusion is the main conclusion. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. Here is an example of an argument with that structure: Wanda rode her bike to work today because when she arrived at work she had her right pant leg rolled up, which cyclists do to keep their pants legs from getting caught in the chain. Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who works in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. Here is the argument in standard form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. Cyclists often roll up their right pant leg. Bob saw Wanda riding her bike towards work at Therefore, Wanda rode her bike to work today. In this case, to avoid any ambiguity, you can see that the support for the conclusion comes independently from statements 1 and 2, on the one hand, and from statement 3, on the other hand. It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. At this point, it is important to understand that arguments can have different structures and that some arguments will be more complex than others. Determining the structure of complex arguments is a skill that takes some time to master, rather like simplifying equations in math. Even so, it may help to remember that any argument structure ultimately traces back to some combination of premises, intermediate arguments, and a main conclusion. Exercise 3 Write the following arguments in standard form. If any arguments are complex, show how each complex argument is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. There is nothing wrong with prostitution because there is nothing wrong with consensual sexual and economic interactions between adults. Moreover, there is no difference between a man who goes on a blind date with a woman, buys her dinner and then has sex with her and a man who simply pays a woman for sex, which is another reason there is nothing wrong with prostitution. Prostitution is wrong because it involves women who have typically been sexually abused as children. Proof that these women have been abused comes from multiple surveys done with female prostitutes that show a high percentage of self-reported sexual abuse as children. Someone was in this cabin recently because warm water was in the tea kettle and wood was still smoldering in the fireplace. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. A persuasive essay, also known as an argumentative essay, is a piece of academic writing where you use logic and reason to show that your point of view is more legitimate than any other. You must expose clear arguments and support them by convincing facts and logical reasons. Persuasive Essay Topics Do you know what the biggest problem with these types of assignments is? What title do you set? This list will help you understand how good persuasive essay topics look like, and it will get you inspired to start writing the project. Should aggressive dogs be euthanized or resocialized? Should gambling be banned in the USA? Are cats better pets than dogs? Should every family have a detailed survival plan for natural-disaster situations? Should children get payment from their parents for doing home chores? Are biological weapons ethical? Should gay couples be allowed to adopt children? Should abortion be banned? Are good-looking people being underestimated because they look good? Is fashion a good or a bad thing for society? Are there such things as good and evil?
Similarly, a lawyer would fully establish evidence for a claim using explanation, facts, statistics, stories, experiences, research, details, and the that. Indeed, they are. A persuasive argument is a valid argument how has all true premises. Write it in your own exists. Essentially, you are problem your outline to include more source information.
They keep an open mind when they read opinions or facts that contradict yours beliefs. Therefore, there essay be a burglar outside.
What example of theme essay is that you give it careful consideration.
Four types of essay: expository, persuasive, analytical, argumentative
How do my sources complement each problem It is important to use the right kind of evidence, to use it effectively, and to exist an appropriate amount of it. If, as a literature student, you ever wrote an essay on yours interpretation of a poem—defending your ideas with examples from the text and persuasive explanations for how those examples demonstrate your interpretation—you have made an argument.
It is important for essays to establish their research questions and working thesis as they transition from the research phase to the writing phrase of a project. how
Throughout your life there will always be people who will be asking you to tell them why you think, feel or believe the way you do. What skills you will learn. You will learn to choose a problem about which you feel strongly and can be made relevant to the audience. This should be your topic for Speech 5, the Policy Speech. You will learn to fashion this problem into a Specific Purpose, which states exactly what physical response you want from your audience. See Speaking Assignment 5 for details. You will learn to define the problem, which gave rise to your Specific Purpose. You will learn to state the problem or an aspect of it, in one complete sentence. You will do research to discover at least two and not more than three main reasons assertions which will support the existence, the seriousness, the inevitability and the relevancy of your problem, which will make your audience feel uncomfortable enough to want to take action. Plan How to Organize Your Paper The final step to complete before beginning your draft is to choose an organizational structure. For instance, if you are asked to explore the impact of a new communications device, a cause-and-effect structure is obviously appropriate. In other cases, you will need to determine the structure based on what suits your topic and purpose. With that in mind, he planned the following outline. Essay 3: outline 2. Working with the notes you organized earlier, follow these steps to begin planning how to organize your paper. Create an outline that includes your working thesis, major subtopics, and supporting points. The major headings in your outline will become sections or paragraphs in your paper. Remember that your ideas should form the backbone of the paper. For each major section of your outline, write a topic sentence stating the main point you will make in that section. As you complete step 2, you may find that some points are too complex to explain in a sentence. Consider whether any major sections of your outline need to be broken up and jot down additional topic sentences as needed. Review your notes and determine how the different pieces of information fit into your outline as supporting points. Add any sources you have identified that you plan on using to support your ideas. Collaboration Please share the outline you created with a classmate. Return the outlines to each other and compare observations. After you have discussed your formal outline with a classmate, submit it to your instructor for approval. You will receive up to 2. You have gathered much of the information you will use, and soon you will be ready to begin writing your draft. This section helps you transition smoothly from one phase to the next. Beginning writers sometimes attempt to transform a pile of note cards into a formal research paper without any intermediary step. This approach presents problems. The first draft may present redundant or contradictory information. Before beginning a draft, or even an outline, good writers pause and reflect. They ask themselves questions such as the following: How has my thinking changed based on my research? What have I learned? Was my working thesis on target? Do I need to rework my thesis based on what I have learned? How does the information in my sources mesh with my research questions and help me answer those questions? Have any additional important questions or subtopics come up that I will need to address in my paper? How do my sources complement each other? End with a strong conclusion. In this type of essay you analyze, examine and interpret such things as an event, book, poem, play or other work of art. What are its most important qualities? Your analytical essay should have an: Introduction and presentation of argument The introductory paragraph is used to tell the reader what text or texts you will be discussing. Every literary work raises at least one major issue. In your introduction you will also define the idea or issue of the text that you wish to examine in your analysis. This is sometimes called the thesis or research question. It is important that you narrow the focus of your essay. Write it in your own words. Discuss your results with a partner or a group. Did you come up with the same argument? Have everyone explain the reasoning for his or her results. Argument and Rhetoric An argument in written form involves making choices, and knowing the principles of rhetoric allows a writer to make informed choices about various aspects of the writing process. Every act of writing takes place in a specific rhetorical situation. The most basic and important components of a rhetorical situation are Author of the text. Intended audience i. Form or type of text. These components give readers a way to analyze a text on first encounter. These factors also help writers select their topics, arrange their material, and make other important decisions about the argument they will make and the support they will need. With this brief introduction, you can see what rhetorical or academic argument is not: An argument need not be controversial or about a controversy. An argument is not a mere fight. An argument does not have a single winner or loser. An argument is not a mere opinion. An argument is not a statement of fact. Furthermore, you can see what rhetorical argument is: An argument is a claim asserted as true. An argument is arguable. An argument must be reasonable. An argument must be supported. An argument in a formal essay is called a thesis. Supporting arguments can be called topic sentences. An argument can be explicit or implicit. An argument must be adapted to its rhetorical situation. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? Questions are at the core of arguments. What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others viable reasons to believe it as well—and also show them that you have considered the issue from multiple angles. To do that, build your argument out of the answers to the five questions a rational reader will expect answers to. In academic and professional writing, we tend to build arguments from the answers to these main questions: What do you want me to do or think? Why should I do or think that? How do I know that what you say is true? Why should I accept the reasons that support your claim? What about this other idea, fact, or consideration? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Both premises and conclusions are statements. Some premises for our littering conclusion might be these: Littering is dangerous to animals. Littering is dangerous to humans. Tip Be aware of the other words to indicate a conclusion—claim, assertion, point—and other ways to talk about the premise—reason, factor, the why. Also, do not confuse this use of the word conclusion with a conclusion paragraph for an essay. What Is a Statement? A statement is a type of sentence that can be true or false and corresponds to the grammatical category of a declarative sentence. For example, the sentence, The Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement because it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. In this case, it happens to be true. However, a sentence is still a statement, even if it is false. For example, the sentence, The Yangtze is a river in Japan, is still a statement; it is just a false statement the Yangtze River is in China. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Do you like Vietnamese pho? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments depend on declarative statements. Tip A question cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. They have not. If, however, they answer that question conclusion and give some reasons for that answer premises , they then have the components necessary for both an argument and a declarative statement of that argument thesis. To reiterate: All arguments are composed of premises and conclusions, both of which are types of statements. The premises of the argument provide reasons for thinking that the conclusion is true. Arguments typically involve more than one premise. What Is Standard Argument Form? A standard way of capturing the structure of an argument, or diagramming it, is by numbering the premises and conclusion. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. A more precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical arguments. An argument is a set of statements, some of which the premises: statements 2 and 3 above attempt to provide a reason for thinking that some other statement the conclusion: statement 1 is true. Because a thesis is an argument, putting the parts of an argument into standard form can help sort ideas. You can transform the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create your own. What Are Argument Indicators? While mapping an argument in standard argument form can be a good way to figure out and formulate a thesis, identifying arguments by other writers is also important. The best way to identify an argument is to ask whether a claim exists in statement form that a writer justifies by reasons also in statement form. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was published more than a year before the student wrote the paper. Conclusion indicators mark that what follows is the conclusion of an argument. Here is another example of a conclusion indicator: A poll administered by Gallup a respected polling company showed candidate X to be substantially behind candidate Y with only a week left before the vote; therefore, candidate Y will probably not win the election. If it is an argument, identify the conclusion claim of the argument. Persuasive Essay Topics Do you know what the biggest problem with these types of assignments is? What title do you set? This list will help you understand how good persuasive essay topics look like, and it will get you inspired to start writing the project. Should aggressive dogs be euthanized or resocialized? Should gambling be banned in the USA? Are cats better pets than dogs? Should every family have a detailed survival plan for natural-disaster situations? Should children get payment from their parents for doing home chores? Are biological weapons ethical? Should gay couples be allowed to adopt children? Should abortion be banned? Are good-looking people being underestimated because they look good? Is fashion a good or a bad thing for society?
Gerald Ford was President of the United States, but he was never elected president because Ford replaced Richard Nixon when Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. What about this other idea, fact, or consideration?
Some protozoa are predators. The most important exist of the introduction is the clear and concise thesis statements, which establishes your point of view, as well as the direction that the persuasive essay is essay how take. Analytical essays normally use the present tense. Do not make the mistake of thinking that you only have to have a positive response to a text.
What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? Formal logic is the formal study of logic. Once you have defined a problem and created your specific purpose for the Policy Speech 5, you will argumentative essay about social networking generate a series of points now called reasons or assertions that problem support the position that you are defending problem statement.
That is, given the truth of the premise, the conclusion has to be true.
Implicit Arguments Arguments can be both explicit and implicit. The relationship between soundness and validity is easy to specify: all sound arguments are valid arguments, but not all valid arguments are sound arguments.
Persuasive Essay Definition and Writing Tips
To better understand the concept of validity, examine this example of an invalid argument: George was President of the United States. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. Monica is a French teacher.