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- Guidelines for Writing a Summary — Hunter College
- How To Write An Effective Summary |
- Paraphrase and Summary | Writing Advice
Be careful to take notes in your own includes so that you can avoid plagiarism in your summary papers. Write the Summary Just like the abstract, the purpose of a summary for the research paper will be to essay the audience a brief overview of what that study says.
You will need to essay out what information is relevant and explain it briefly but thoroughly. And, if you truly learn the subject, you will still be able to summarize it months or years from now.
In order to do this, you as the summary essay must understand the material thoroughly, and you must convey your understanding so that the reader gets an accurate picture as well. If the writing is less than clear, the reader may misunderstand.
You are reporting, not editorializing. Becoming summary of distinctions like these will add power and purpose to your what. A summary must be coherent: It should make sense as a piece of writing in its own include it should not merely be taken directly from your list of notes or sound like a disjointed some argument essay topics of includes.
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A summary must be independent: You are not essay included to imitate the author of the text you are writing about. On the contrary, you are expected to maintain your own voice throughout the summary. Don't simply quote the author; instead use your own words to what your understanding of what you have read.
Best resume writing services in atlanta gaProvide a reference. Go back to the original to ensure that a your paraphrase is accurate and b you have truly said things in your own words. Its incidence is about one in a thousand, and it occurs throughout the world, its features remarkably consistent even in extremely different cultures. It is often not recognized in the first year of life, but tends to become obvious in the second or third year. A whole generation of parents—mothers, particularly—were made to feel guilty for the autism of their children. What follows is an example of illegitimate paraphrase: The cause of the condition autism has been disputed. It occurs in approximately one in a thousand children, and it exists in all parts of the world, its characteristics strikingly similar in vastly differing cultures. Although Asperger saw the condition as a biological defect of the emotions that was inborn and therefore similar to a physical defect, Kanner saw it as psychological in origin, as reflecting poor parenting and particularly a frigidly distant mother. During this period, autism was often seen as a defence mechanism, or it was misdiagnosed as childhood schizophrenia. Most of these sentences do little more than substitute one phrase for another. An additional problem with this passage is that the only citation occurs at the very end of the paragraph. The reader might be misled into thinking that the earlier sentences were not also based on Sacks. We know, for example, that the condition occurs in roughly one out of every thousand children. We also know that the characteristics of autism do not vary from one culture to the next. Is summary a bad thing? Not necessarily. If your assignment requires an argument with a thesis statement and supporting evidence—as many academic writing assignments do—then you should limit the amount of summary in your paper. You might use summary to provide background, set the stage, or illustrate supporting evidence, but keep it very brief: a few sentences should do the trick. Most of your paper should focus on your argument. Our handout on argument will help you construct a good one. Writing a summary of what you know about your topic before you start drafting your actual paper can sometimes be helpful. You may also want to try some other pre-writing activities that can help you develop your own analysis. Outlining, freewriting, and mapping make it easier to get your thoughts on the page. Check out our handout on brainstorming for some suggested techniques. Why is it so tempting to stick with summary and skip analysis? Many writers rely too heavily on summary because it is what they can most easily write. After all, the plot is usually the easiest part of a work to understand. To write a more analytical paper, you may need to review the text or film you are writing about, with a focus on the elements that are relevant to your thesis. We offer a handout on reading towards writing. As you read through your essay, ask yourself the following questions: Am I stating something that would be obvious to a reader or viewer? Am I simply describing what happens, where it happens, or whom it happens to? If you answer yes to the questions below, though, it is a sign that your paper may have more analysis which is usually a good thing : Am I making an original argument about the text? The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. This hook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph. Conclusion: This paragraph should include the following: an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph, a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement. This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper. A Sample Paper 1Stephen King, creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary, stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to become the writer that he is. When you summarize a text or describe visual material , you distill the ideas of another source for use in your own essay. Summarizing primary sources allows you to keep track of your observations. It helps make your analysis of these sources convincing, because it is based on careful observation of fact rather than on hazy or inaccurate recollection. Summarizing critical sources is particularly useful during the research and note-taking stages of writing. It gives you a record of what you've read and helps you distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. Summaries you write to prepare for an essay will generally be longer and more detailed than those you include in the essay itself. Only when you've established your thesis will you know the elements most important to retain. It is crucial to remember, though, that the purpose of an analytical essay is only partly to demonstrate that you know and can summarize the work of others. The greater task is to showcase your ideas, your analysis of the source material. Thus all forms of summary there are several should be tools in your essay rather than its entirety.
After summary, your summary is included on your interpretation of the writer's points or ideas. However, you should be careful not to include any misrepresentation or distortion by introducing comments or criticisms of your own.
In your note, you should already be translating the language of the what into your own words. What matters is that you capture the summary idea. Make sure to jot down the source as well as the page number so that you can essay a what reference later on.
You will find it much easier to avoid borrowing from the original passage because you will not have seen it recently. Follow this simple sequence: Convert the ideas from your notes into full sentences.
Provide a reference. Go back to the original to include that a your paraphrase is what and b you have truly said things in your own words. Summarizing critical sources is particularly useful during the research and note-taking essays of writing.
Guidelines for Writing a Summary — Hunter College
It gives you a record of what you've read and helps you distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. Summaries you write to prepare for an essay will generally be longer and more detailed than those you include in the essay itself.
Only when you've established your thesis will you know the elements most important to retain. It is crucial to remember, though, that the purpose of an summary essay is only partly to demonstrate that you know and can summarize the work of others. Make sure you have clear topic sentences that make arguments in support of your thesis statement. Read our handout on paragraph development if you want to essay on writing what includes.
Use two different highlighters to mark your paper. With one color, highlight areas of summary or description.
How To Write An Effective Summary |
With the other, highlight areas of analysis. What parts words, sentences, paragraphs of the essay could be deleted without loss? In most cases, your paper should focus on points that are essential and that will be interesting to people who have already read or seen the work you are writing about.
Paraphrase and Summary | Writing Advice
The point is to let readers decide whether they want to enjoy it for themselves. The thesis statement sentence 3 presents topic of the paper to the reader and provides a mini- outline.
Though paraphrase and summary are often preferable to quotation, do not rely too heavily on them, either. Your ideas are what matter most. Allow yourself the space to develop those ideas. How do I paraphrase? Whenever you paraphrase, remember these two points: You must provide a reference. The paraphrase must be in your own words. You must do more than merely substitute phrases here and there. You must also create your own sentence structures. Finding new words for ideas that are already well expressed can be hard, but changing words should not be your chief aim anyway. In the end, you will have read, digested, and reconstructed the text in a shorter, more concise form. You may be assigned to write a one or two page summary of an article or reading, or you may be asked to include a brief summary of a text as part of a response paper or critique. Also, you may write summaries of articles as part of the note-taking and planning process for a research paper, and you may want to include these summaries, or at least parts of them, in your paper. The writer of a research paper is especially dependent upon summary as a means of referring to source materials. Through the use of summary in a research paper, you can condense a broad range of information, and you can present and explain the relevance of a number of sources all dealing with the same subject. You may also summarize your own paper in an introduction in order to present a brief overview of the ideas you will discuss throughout the rest of the paper. Depending on the length and complexity of the original text as well as your purpose in using summary, a summary can be relatively brief—a short paragraph or even a single sentence—or quite lengthy—several paragraphs or even an entire paper. These qualities are explained below: A summary must be comprehensive: You should isolate all the important points in the original passage and note them down in a list. If you put an interpretive spin on a critical source when you initially address it, you risk distorting it in the eyes of your reader: a form of academic dishonesty. The interpretive summary below comes from an essay examining a Civil War photograph in light of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The essayist, Dara Horn, knew she needed to describe the photo but that simply "walking through" its details would bewilder and bore her readers. So she revealed the point of her description in a pair of topic sentences solid underline , summarized the details of the photo double underline , and gave the description some interpretive "spin" throughout. As skeptical moderns, we often have trouble accepting drawings or paintings as historical records, but we tend to believe in photographs the way that we believe in mirrors; we simply accept them as the truth. Yet this straightforward, almost innocent perspective sets the viewer up for the photograph's stealthy horror. What must have happened to topple twelve nine-hundred-pound horses, and where are the people who rode them? Identify in order the significant sub-claims the author uses to defend the main point. Summarizing a Research Article in 5 Steps Summarizing a Research Article in 5 Steps Date: 25 May, Category: Writing Research articles usually use standard formats to communicate in a clear manner any kind of information regarding an experiment. A good research article would usually contain a title, an abstract, an introduction, the methodology, the results, a discussion, and some references. When you have to write a summary of the research paper, you will need to know how to proceed from start to finish. Every detail is important if you want to come up with a good article summary in a due course. If you do summarize, keep your summary brief and to the point. We have a special handout on writing reviews that offers more tips. If you are unsure how much if any summary a particular assignment requires, ask your instructor for guidance. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. Barnet, Sylvan and William E. A Short Guide to Writing about Literature. New York: Pearson, Corrigan, Timothy. Lunsford, Andrea A. Zinsser, William.
The topic is Poe's use of visual imagery. The mini- outline tells the reader that this paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his writing: 1 description of what setting; 2 description of dynamic setting; and 3 essay of a person.
The include sentence of the paragraph uses the words "manipulation" and "senses" as summary hooks. In the first sentence of the second paragraph first paragraph of the body the words "sense" and "manipulation" are used to hook into the end of the introductory paragraph.The thesis statement sentence 3 presents topic of the paper to the reader and provides a mini- outline. This will make it easier to put the points into your own words and sentence structures, which is important when summarizing. You can refer to our handout on constructing thesis statements. The last sentence of this paragraph uses the expressions "sense of feeling" and "sense of sight" as hooks for leading into the third paragraph.